Updated March 2022

Topics covered include:

  • Evidence-based practice
  • Program evaluation
  • Measuring impact of career services
  • Canadian standards for career development
  • Frameworks for evaluating effectiveness
  • Career guidance and counsellor efficacy
  • Career services in post-secondary institutions

Agarwal, A. (2018). Why is Experiential Learning the Real Learning for Employees. Entrepreneur.  

Anderson, K.L., Boyd, M., Marin, K.A., McNamara, K. (2019). Reimagining Service-Learning: Deepening the Impact of This High-Impact Practice. Journal of Experiential Education. Vol. 42(3) 

Andrews, J. & Ramji, K. (2020). Connecting work-integrated learning and career development in virtual environments: An analysis of the UVic Leading Edge. International Journal of Work – Integrated Learning. Vol.21(5), 643–656. 

Ash, S. L., & Clayton, P. H. (2004). The articulated learning: An approach to guided reflection and assessment. Innovative Higher Education, Vol.29(2), 137-154. 

*Ashby, C. (2006). The benefits of reflective practice. Practice Nurse, Vol.32(9), 35-37. 

Associate for Experiential Education. (n.d.). What is Experiential Education.  

Barton, G., & Ryan, M. (2020). What does reflection look and feel like for international students? An exploration of reflective thinking, reflexivity and employability. Journal of International Students. Vol. 10(S2), 1-16.  

Beard, C., & Wilson, J. P. (2013). Experiential learning: a handbook for education, training and coaching (3rd ed.). London, UK: Kogan Page Publishers 

Bennett, D., Power, A., Thomson, C., Mason, B., & Bartleet, B.-L. (2016). Reflection for learning, learning for reflection: developing Indigenous competencies in higher education. Journal of University Teaching & Learning Practice. Vol. 13(2). 

Bhuiyan, N., and Brennan, J. (2019). Eager to expand your university education through experiential learning? Concordia University. 

Bleakney, J. (2019). What is Work-Integrated Learning?. Elon University, Center for Engaged Learning.  

*Bloomfield, T. (2013). Engaging indigenous participation: toward a more diverse profession. Museum Management and Curatorship. Vol.28(2), 138-152. 

Budd, J.M., Chu, C.M., Dali, K., O’Brien, H. (2016). Making an impact through experiential learning. Proceedings of the Association for Information Science and Technology, Vol 52 (1), 1-4.  

*Boenink, A. D., Oderwald, A. K., De Jonge, P., Van Tilburg, W., & Smal, J. A. (2004). Assessing student reflection in medical practice. The development of an observer‐rated instrument: reliability, validity and initial experiences. Medical education, Vol.38(4), 368-377. 

Branch Jr, W. T., & George, M. (2017). Reflection-based learning for professional ethical formation. AMA Journal of Ethics. Vol.19(4), 349-356.  

Bringle, R. G., & Hatcher, J. A. (1999). Reflection in service-learning: Making meaning of experience. Evaluation/Reflection, Educational Horizons. Vol.7(4), 179-185.  

Campbell, G. (2016). Networked Learning as Experiential Learning. EDUCAUSEREVIEW. 

Canadian Alliance of Student Associations. (2019). Experiential Learning and Pathways to Education for Canadian Youth. Canadian Alliance of Student Associations. 

Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners. (2012). Glossary of Career Development Terms 

Carleton University. (2018). Experiential Learning.  

Carleton University. (n.d.). Experiential learning is the application of theory and academic content to real-world experiences.  

Carson, A., Greenhill, G. (2013). The Manhattanville Portfolio System: Using Inquiry and Reflection to Support Integration across a Student’s College Career 

*Carson, L. & Fisher, K. (2006). Raising the bar on criticality: students’ critical reflection in an internship program. Journal of Management Education, Vol.30(5), 700-723. 

Chan, A., & Derry, T. (2013). A roadmap for transforming the college-to-career experience. Wake Forest University.  

Chen, H., Kelly, M., Hayes, C., van Reyk, D., and Herok, G. (2016). The use of simulation as a novel experiential learning module in undergraduate science pathophysiology education. Advances in Physiology Education, Vol. 40 (3), 335-341.  

Chow, J., Zou, T., Tse, S. (2017). Enhancing the Effectiveness of Experiential Learning: Professional Development and Support for Teachers. Cetl. 

*Coker, J.S., Heiser, E., Taylor, L., Book, C. (2016). Impacts of Experiential Learning Depth and Breadth on Student Outcomes. Journal of Experiential Education, Vol. 40 (1), 5-23. 

*Coker, J.S. and Porter, D.J. (2016). Student Motivations and Perceptions Across and Within Five Forms of Experiential Learning. The Journal of General Education. Vol. 65, No. 2, pp. 138-156. 

Council of Ministers of Education Canada. (2017). CMEC Reference Framework for Successful Student Transitions.  

*Coyer, C., Gebregiorgis, D., Patton, K., Gheleva, D., Bikos, L. (2019). Cultivating Global Learning Locally Through Community-Based Experiential Education. Journal of Experiential Education.Vol. 42: (2), 155-170. 

Cropley, B., Hanton, S., Miles, A., & Niven, A. (2010). The value of reflective practice in professional development: An applied sport psychology review. Sport Science Review, Vol. 19(3-4), 179.  

*Dewey, J. (1933). How we think: a restatement of the relation of reflective thinking to the educative process. New York: D.C. Heath and Company. 

Dobos, Á. (2014). Experiential learning for professional development in the civil service. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol.116, 5085-5090. 

Durant, E. (2018). 3 Questions: Kate Trimble on experiential learning at MIT. MIT News 

*Eyler, J. (2002). Reflecting on service: helping nursing students get the most from service learning. Journal of Nursing Education. Vol.41(10), 453-456. 

Eyler, J. (2009). The power of experiential education. Liberal education. Vol.95(4), 24-31.  

*Eyler, J., Giles, D. E., & Schmiede, A. (1996). A practitioner’s guide to reflection in service-learning. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University. 

Eynon, B., Gambino, L. M., & Török, J. (2014). What Difference Can ePortfolio Make? A Field Report from the Connect to Learning Project. International Journal of ePortfolio. Vol.4(1), 95-114.  

Eynon, B., Gambino, L. M., & Török, J. (2014). Reflection, Integration, and ePortfolio Pedagogy. Catalyst for Learning.  

Fawell, J. (208). Experiential Learning: Some Reservations. American Association of University Professors. 

Feller,R., Franklin,M. (2020). The HEROIC Narrative Assessment System: Helping Undergrads Navigate Transitions. In P.Gardner, H.N.Maietta (Eds.), Advancing Talent Development: Toward a T-model Infused Undergraduate Education. Business Expert Press 

*Fostaty Young, C. S., & Wilson, R. J. (2000). Assessment and learning: the ICE approach. Portage & Main Press. 

Frank, R. (2019). How Experiential Learning in College Could Launch Your Career. Princeton Review. 

Franklin, M., Yanar, B., & Feller, R. (2015). Narrative method of practice increases curiosity & exploration, psychological capital, and personal growth leading to career clarity: A retrospective outcome-study. Canadian Journal of Career Development. Vol. 14(2), 12-23. 

Freeman, S., Eddy, S. L., McDonough, M., Smith, M. K., Okoroafor, N., Jordt, H., & Wenderoth, M. P. (2014). Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Vol.111(23), 8410-8415. 

Future New Brunswick. (n.d.). Experiential Learning Toolkit for New Brunswick Employers.  

Forbes Coaches Council. (2018). 10 Easy Ways to Implement Experiential Learning in the Corporate World. Forbes. 

Forbes Coaches Council, (2017). Why Experiential Learning Should Be Part of Your Employee Training. Forbes. 

*Garcia, H. & Miralles, F. (2016). Ikigai: The Japanese secret to a long and happy life. Penguin. 

Girvan, C., Conneely, C., Tangney, B. (2016). Extending experiential learning in teacher professional development. Teaching and Teacher Education. Volume 58, Pages 129-139. 

*Glazier, J., Bolick, C., Stutts, C. (2017). Unstable Ground: Unearthing the Realities of Experiential Education in Teacher Education. Journal of Experiential Education. Vol. 40 (3), 231-248. 

Gomez, E. (2018). Preparing Students for the Future with Experiential Learning. CAPSIM. 

Gotto, R. (2016). Eight Reasons Why Experiential Learning is Important in Business. Saskatchewan Research Council. 

Gray, L. (2008). Effective practice with e-portfolios. Higher Education Funding Council for England, JISC, Bristol.  

*Grossman, R. (2009). Structures for facilitating student reflection. College Teaching. Vol.57(1), 15-22. 

Hasan, A., Wilkins, L., McShane, K., & Arzaga, A. (2019). Zone Learning: A Pilot Evaluation of 21st Century Skills. Ryerson University.  

*Hatton, N., & Smith, D. (1995). Reflection in teacher education: Towards definition and implementation. Teaching and Teacher Education. Vol. 11(1), 33–49.  

Helyer, R. (2015). Learning through reflection: the critical role of reflection in work-based learning (WBL). Journal of Work-Applied Management. Vol. 7(1), 15-27. 

Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario (2016). A Practical Guide for Work-integrated Learning. Queen’s Printer for Ontario.   

Ho, M. (2016). New Research Shows Investing in Experiential Learning for Leaders Pays Off. Atd- Association for Talent Development 

Houde, P. M. A. (2019). Reflective Practice for Professional Development via a Collective Accompaniment Model: Transforming English as a Foreign Language Teaching with BA-TESOL Professionals in Mexico. McGill University (Canada).  

Howland, S. M. (2017). Formative Evaluation of BYU Internship Course Syllabi. Unpublished masters project manuscript, Department of Instructional Psychology and Technology, Brigham Young University,Provo, Utah.  

Hussain, N., Akhtar Rana, N. (2019). Testing ERE Cycle in Teaching Business Communication Courses: Experiential Learning Strategies. Journal of Education and Educational Development. Vol. 6 (1), 62-77 

*Jackson, D., Rowbottom, D., Ferns, S., & McLaren, D. (2017). Employer understanding of work-integrated learning and the challenges of engaging in work placement opportunities. Studies in Continuing Education. Vol. 39(1), 35-51.  

*Jameson, J., Clayton, P., & Bringle, R. (2008). Investigating student learning within and across linked service-learning courses. In M. Bowden, S. Billig, & B. Holland (Eds.), Scholarship for sustaining service learning and civic engagement (pp. 3-27). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing. 

Janes, S. (2018). Career Ready Fund supports experiential learning initiatives on campus. McMaster University. 

Keates, C., Morgan, F. (2017). Growing Experiential Learning Opportunities for Students. CACEE- Canadian Association of Career Educators and Employers 

*Kember, D., Leung, D.Y.P., Jones, A., Yuen Loke, A., McKay, J., Sinclair, K., Tse, H., Webb, C., Kam Yuet Wong, F., Wong, M. & Yeung, E. (2000). Development of a Questionnaire to Measure the Level of Reflective Thinking. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, Vol.25(4), 381-395.  

*Kember, D., McKay, J., Sinclair, K., & Wong, F. K. Y. (2008). A four-category scheme for coding and assessing the level of reflection in written work. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education. Vol.33(4), 369-379. 

*King, P. M., & Kitchener, K. S. (1994). Developing reflective judgment: understanding and promoting intellectual growth and critical thinking in adolescents and adults. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. 

*Kinsella, E. A. (2001). Reflections on reflective practice. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy. Vol. 68(3), 195-198. 

*Kinsella, E.A. (2007). Technical rationality in Schön’s reflective practice: dichotomous or non-dualistic epistemological position. Nursing Philosophy. Vol. 8(2), 102-113. 

Kluger, A. N., & Nir, D. (2010). The feedforward interview. Human Resource Management Review. Vol. 20(3), 235-246. 

Kolb, D.A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall 

Kotadia, Z. (2017). Experiential Learning: The Future of the Liberal Arts. OUSA. 

LaFever, M. (2016). Switching from Bloom to the Medicine Wheel: creating learning outcomes that support Indigenous ways of knowing in post-secondary education. Intercultural Education Vol. 27(5), 409–424.  

*Langlais, M.R. (2018). Experiential Learning in Family Life education Methodology: Low, medium, and High Dosage Projects. Journal of Experiential Education. Vol. 41 (4), 382-396.  

Lash, J. (2016). The Power of Experiential Learning. Education Week. 

Lauer, D. (2017). 3 Ways to Use Experiential Learning to Boost Your Career. Success Magazine. 

Liu, Y. (2019, May 10), CERIC. Post-Secondary Students with Disabilities Face Gaps in Career Education Services.  

*Loughran, J.J. (1996). Developing reflective practice: learning about teaching and learning through modelling. London: The Falmer Press. 

MacDonald, M. (2018). The push to bridge the school-work gap. University Affairs/Affaires Universitaires. 

Mackaway, J., & Winchester-Seeto, T. (2018). Deciding access to work-integrated learning: Human resource professionals as gatekeepers. International Journal of Work-Integrated Learning. Vol.19(2), 141- 154.  

Maguire, D. S. (2018). First Year Business Practicum: Impacts of Early Experiential Learning. e-Journal of Business Education & Scholarship of Teaching. Vol. 12(1), 88–101. 

*Mamede, S., & Schmidt, H. (2004). The structure of reflective practice in medicine. Medical Education, Vol. 38 (12), 1302-1308 

*Masterson, M. (2018). Self-Discovery Through the Experiential Co-Construction of Life Stories in the Foreign Language Classroom. Journal of Experiential Education. Vol. 41 (4), 341-355. 

McCarthy, M. (2016). Experiential Learning Theory: From Theory to Practice. Journal of Business & Economics Research. Vol. 14(3), 91-100. 

*McGuire, L., Strong, D., Lay, K., Ardemagni, E., Wittberg, P., & Clayton, P. (2009). A case study of faculty learning around reflection: A collaborative faculty development project. In B. Moeley, S. Billig, & B. Holland (Eds.), Creating our identities in service learning and community engagement (pp. 53-72). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing. 

McKay, D. (2018). Experiential learning, agile employees: Getting our students on the right path. The Globe and Mail. 

McIlveen, P., Brooks, S., Lichtenberg, A., Smith, M., Torjul, P., & Tyler, J. (2009, April). Career development learning and work-integrated learning practices in Australian universities. Paper presented at the Career Development Association of Australia National Career Conference 2009, Melbourne.  

McRae, N., & Johnston, N. (2016). The Development of a Proposed Global Work-Integrated Learning Framework. Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education. Vol. 17(4), 337-348. 

McRae, N., Judene Pretty, T., Church, D. (n.d.). Work-Integrated Learning Quality Framework, 

AAA. University of Waterloo.  

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Metacognition. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary.  

*Mezirow, J. (1991). Transformative dimensions of adult learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. 

*Mezirow, J. (1998). On critical reflection. Adult Education Quarterly. Vol.48(3), 185-199. 

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Experiential Learning.  

*Miller, R.J., Maellaro, R. (2016). Getting to the Root of the Problem in Experiential Learning: Using Problem Solving and Collective Reflection to Improve Learning Outcomes. Journal of Management Education. Vol. 40(2), 170-193. 

Moss, D. (2017). 8 Reasons to Adopt Experiential Learning. SHRM. 

Mohawk College. (n.d.). Experiential Learning and Reflection 

Moon, J. A. (2004). Reflection and employability (Vol. 4). York: LTSN Generic Centre. 

*Moon, J. (2004). A handbook of reflective and experiential learning: theory and practice. London, UK: Routledge Falmer 

National Association of Colleges and Employers. (2016). Addressing the Career Readiness of 

Nontraditional Students 

National Association of Colleges and Employers. (2017). Symposium IDS Four Pillars of Competency Development.  

National Society for Experiential Education. (2013). Eight Principles of Good Practice for All Experiential Learning Activities 

*Newman, T.J., Alvarez, M.A.G., Kim, M. (2017). An Experiential Approach to Sport for Youth Development. Journal of Experiential Education. Vol. 40 (3), 308-322.  

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Peters, J., Sattler, P., & Kelland, J. (2014). Work-integrated learning in Ontario’s postsecondary sector: The pathways of recent college and university graduates. Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario.  

Philipps, L., Turcotte, J. F., & Nichols, L. (2016, October 27). The Downsides of Post-Secondary Co-op Work Placements. Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario. 

Purchase, L. (2019). Accessible Experiential Learning: The Key to Student Success in the Future of Work. NCDA. 

Purchase, L. (2021, May 1). Accessible Experiential Learning: The Key to Student Success in the Future of Work. Career Convergence.  

Puri, I.K. (2018). Why learning from experience is the educational wave of the future. The Conversation.  

Porter, J. (2017). Why you should make time for self-reflection (even if you hate doing it). Harvard Business Review 

Prince, M. (2004). Does active learning work? A review of the research. Journal of Engineering 

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Raelin, J. A. (2002). ‘I Don’t Have Time to Think!'(vs. The Art of Reflective Practice). Reflections: The Sol Journal. Vol.4(1), 66-79. 

Reddan, G. (2016). The Role of Work-Integrated Learning in Developing Students’ Perceived Work Self Efficacy. Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, Special Issue. Vol.17(4), 423-436.  

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Rego, M. (2018). The Global Learning Distinction: an Experiential Learning Research Project. Journal of International Business Research and Marketing. Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 50-54. 

Risner, D. (2015). Research, Design, and Implementation of an Internship Course in Dance: Turning Student Knowledge into Professional Know-How. Journal of Dance Education. Vol.15(2), 60–71.  

Roberts, P. (2016). Reflection: A Renewed and Practical Focus for an Existing Problem in Teacher Education. Australian Journal of Teacher Education. Vol.41(7), 19-35.  

Roberts, J. (2018). From the Editor: The Possibilities and Limitations of Experiential Learning Research in Higher Education. Journal of Experiential Education. Vol. 4(1) 3-7. 

Rodgers, C. (2002). Defining Reflection: Another Look at John Dewey and Reflective Thinking. Teachers College Record. Vol.104 (4), 842-866.  

Roland, K. (2017, March). Experiential Learning: Learning through Reflective Practice. International Journal for Cross-Disciplinary Subjects in Education. Vol. 8(1), 2982-2989 

*Rolfe, G., Jasper, M., & Freshwater, D. (2011). Critical reflection in practice: Generating knowledge for care. Palgrave MacMillan 

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*Ryan, M., & Ryan, M. (2013). Theorising a model for teaching and assessing reflective learning in higher education. Higher Education Research and Development. Vol.32(2), 244–257.  

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*Sargeant, J.M., Mann, K.V., Van der Vleuten, C.P., & Metsemakers, J.F. (2009). Reflection: a link between receiving and using assessment feedback. Advancement in Health Science Education. Vol. 14, 399-400. 

Sattler, P. (2011). Work-Integrated learning in Ontario’s postsecondary sector. Toronto: Higher 

Education Quality Council of Ontario. 

Scheef, A. R., Barrio, B. L., Poppen, M. I., McMahon, D., & Miller, D. (2018). Exploring barriers for facilitating work experience opportunities for students with intellectual disabilities enrolled in postsecondary education programs. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability. Vol. 31(3), 209-224.  

*Schön, D. (1983). The reflective practitioner: how professionals think in action. New York: Basic Books. 

*Schön, D. (1987). Educating the Reflective Practitioner. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass 

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*Seaman, J.O., Brown, M., Quay, J. (2017). The evolution of experiential learning: Tracing lines of research in the JEE. Journal of Experiential Education, Vol. 40 (4), NP1-NP21.  

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*Thompson, S. & Thompson, N. (2008). The critically reflective practitioner. New York: Palgrave 


Tiessen, R. (2018). Improving Student Reflection in Experiential Learning Reports in Post-Secondary Institutions. Journal of Education and Learning. Vol.7(3), 1-10. 

Tiessen, R., Grantham, K., Cameron, J. (2018). The Relationship Between Experiential Learning and Career Outcomes for Alumni of International Development Studies Programs in Canada. Canadian Journal of Higher Education. Vol.48 (3), 23-42. 

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Experiential, Work-Integrated, and Community-Engaged Learning. A White Paper  

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*Vilaseca, B. (2013). Qué harías si no tuvieras miedo? [What would you do if you weren’t afraid?]. Conecta. 

Viveiros de Castro Krakauer, P., Ribeiro Serra, F.A., Ribeiro de Almeida, M.I. (2016). Using experiential learning to teach entrepreneurship: a study with Brazilian undergraduate students. International Journal of Educational Management, Vol.31(7), 986-999.  

Waddell, J., Robinson, P., & Wehbi, S. (2018). Bridging the Theory/Practice Divide in Professional Programs: Is Experiential Learning the Solution?. Transformative Dialogues: Teaching and Learning Journal. Vol. 11(1)., 1-17.  

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Whalen, K. & Paez, A. (2019). Development of a new framework to guide, assess, and evaluate student reflections in a university sustainability course. Teaching & Learning Inquiry. Vol.7(1).  

Wiggins, G. (2016). Experiential Learning: Just Because It’s Hands-On Doesn’t Mean It’s Minds-On. Teachthought. 

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Bédard, D., Bibeau, J., Pilon, C., & Turgeon, A. (2020). L’Espace Expérientiel (E²): une pédagogie interactive. Les Annales de QPES. Vol. 1(1). 

Bucheton, D. (2003). Du portfolio au dossier professionnel: éléments de réflexion. Tréma, (20-21), 43-53.  

Caceres, J. F. (2018). Gérer une organisation émancipatrice: la pratique réflexive de parole d’exclues (Masters dissertation), Biblos HEC Montreal.  

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Deschamps, A. (2020). L’évolution de la pratique réflexive chez les apprenantes et les superviseures lors des stages en travail social (Masters dissertation, Université du Québec à Chicoutimi).  

Deschênes, M. F., Fournier, V., & St-Julien, A. (2016). Le développement du jugement en situation authentique: l’apprentissage expérientiel dans un contexte de simulation pour une pratique professionnelle sécuritaire. Pédagogie Collégiale, Vol.30(1), 14-22.  

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Note: References marked with “*” are behind paywall