fbpx

CERIC and the Canadian Council for Career Development (CCCD) have collaborated to launch the Glossary of Career Development. The glossary is primarily intended to serve as a resource to those working or studying in the field of career development, though it will also be of value to Canadians more broadly who are looking for definitions of terms in relation to their own careers.

Given the richness and diversity of the field, it is also hoped that this glossary can move us towards a common vocabulary and shared understanding of career development. As a starting point, many of the terms come from CERIC’s Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles, and Professionalism textbook, the Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners, housed by the CCCD, as well as a selection of primary reference sources.

    A

    Abilities

    Abilities are an underlying, enduring trait useful for performing a specified act or task, either physical or mental. Such powers can be learned or innate. For instance, oral comprehension is the ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.

    Human Resources.hrvinet.com, “KSA model – Knowledge, skills and abilities.” Online: http://www.humanresources.hrvinet.com/what-is-knowledge-skills-and-abilities-ksa-model/

    Landine, Jeffrey and John Stewart, “Assessment in Career Guidance.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.434.


    Acculturation

    Acculturation is the process of cultural and psychological change following contact between cultural groups and their individual members. The acculturation process implies mutual influence between members of the two cultures or groups, although acculturation is usually characterized by the members of a minority group adopting the habits, beliefs, behaviours and language patterns of the dominant group. However, the dominant group may also adopt patterns typical of the minority group. Patterns that can change in the acculturation process include language preference, common attitudes and values, members popular in common social groups and institutions and separate political or ethnic identification.

    Bylsma, Lisa and Sophie C. Yohani, “Immigrants in Canada.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.269.


    Achievement Motivation

    Achievement motivation is the intrinsic drive to pursue and attain goals. An individual with achievement motivation wishes to achieve objectives and advance up on the ladder of success. A motivated person, therefore, is conceptualized as someone with cognitions or beliefs that lead to constructive achievement behavior, such as exerting effort or persisting in the face of difficulty. At least part of accomplishment striving is important for its own sake, the intrinsic pleasure one feels from achieving higher levels of mastery or understanding, and not for the rewards that accompany it.

    Bylsma, Lisa and Sophie C. Yohani, “Immigrants in Canada.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.269.

    Stipek, D., “Defining Achievement Motivation.” Education.com. Online: http://www.education.com/reference/article/defining-achievement-motivation/ (updated May 1st, 2014)


    Action Planning

    Action planning is a process that helps one focus his or her ideas and to decide what steps are needed to achieve a particular goal. It is a statement of what one wants to achieve over a period of time.

    McKinnon, Kerri and Kathleen Johnston, “Career Planning, Knowledge, and Skills.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.193.

    Active Listening

    Active listening is a structured form of listening and responding that focuses the attention on the speaker. It involves making a conscious effort to hear not only the words that another person is saying but, more importantly, try to understand the complete message being sent. The listener must take care to attend to the speaker fully, and then repeats, in the listener’s own words, what he or she thinks the speaker has said.

    MindTools, “Active Listening; Hear What People are Really Saying.” Online: http://www.mindtools.com/CommSkll/ActiveListening.htm

    Walters, Beverley, Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani, “Developing Effective Client Relationships.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.168.


    Adult Basic Education

    Adult Basic Education usually refers to bringing adults who did not complete high school to a functioning level in reading, arithmetic and science that enables them to obtain their high school diploma as well as prerequisites for post-secondary programs. It is often referred to as upgrading.

    Canada Career Information Partnership. A Career Development Resource for Parents: Helping parents explore the role of coach and ally. 2006. Online: http://www.ccdf.ca/ccdf/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/a_career_development_resource_for_parents_e.pdf

    Advising

    Advising is a dynamic, interactive process that “helps students understand how their personal interests, abilities, skills and values might predict success in the academic and career fields they are considering and how to form their academic and career goals accordingly” (Gordon). It involves recommending options that are considered best suited to the individual’s needs. Practitioners help individuals to examine such options and to make thoughtful decisions. It is different from the more psychologically intense career counseling that seeks to assist students with the complex career-related personal concerns.

    Canada Career Information Partnership. A Career Development Resource for Parents: Helping parents explore the role of coach and ally. 2006. Online: http://www.ccdf.ca/ccdf/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/a_career_development_resource_for_parents_e.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Gordon, V. N. (2006). Career advising: An academic advisor’s guide. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, p.12

    McCalla-Wriggins, Betsy, “Integrating career and academic advising.” Clearinghouse. Online: http://www.nacada.ksu.edu/Resources/Clearinghouse/View-Articles/Integrating-career-and-academic-advising.aspx (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)


    Advocating

    Advocating is negotiating directly with institutions, employers or agencies on behalf of individuals or groups for whom there may be additional barriers to access opportunities. It seeks to empower the individual and foster systemic change and social justice, while understanding and respecting the client’s unique cultural and social context. For example, an Employment Consultant may advocate with an employer on behalf of a hearing-impaired client to negotiate for use of a customized headphone on the job.

    Canada Career Information Partnership. A Career Development Resource for Parents: Helping parents explore the role of coach and ally. 2006. Online: http://www.ccdf.ca/ccdf/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/a_career_development_resource_for_parents_e.pdf  (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Londoño-McConnell, Angela. “Advocating, Educating, Inspiring: The Expanding Role of Career Professionals.” Career Convergence, September 2012. Online: http://www.ncda.org/aws/NCDA/pt/sd/news_article/62880/_PARENT/layout_details_cc/false (Retrieved on May 28, 2014)


    Affection

    Affection is the genuineness, realness, or congruence that the practitioner brings to the relationship. The more the practitioner is “real” in the relationship, the greater is the likelihood that the client will change and grow in a constructive manner.

    Walters, Beverley, Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani, “Developing Effective Client Relationships.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.168.

    Affiliation Motivation

    Affiliation motivation is the need to establish, preserve and restore positive emotional relationships and to relate socially with people. Persons with affiliation motivation perform work better when they are complimented for their favourable attitudes and co-operation.

    Bylsma, Lisa and Sophie C. Yohani, “Immigrants in Canada.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.269.

    Wikiversity, “Affiliation motivation – What is affiliation motivation? What causes affiliation motivation and what are the impacts of affiliation motivation?” Online: http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Motivation_and_emotion/Book/2013/Affiliation_motivation (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)


    Age Discrimination

    Age Discrimination is treating someone less favorably, or deny or limit opportunities to people based solely on age. The real trick comes in relation to the word “rights” – especially when we’re talking about age-related employment discrimination. Often, even if we know it’s there, it’s hard to prove.

    U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, “Age Discrimination.” Online: http://www.eeoc.gov/laws/types/age.cfm (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Work Coach Café. “Career Dictionary” Online: http://www.workcoachcafe.com/career-dictionary-definitions/ (Retrieved on May 28, 2014)


    Ally

    An Ally is defined as “One in helpful association with another” and in relationship to careers supports another person to achieve their goals and objectives.

    Canada Career Information Partnership. A Career Development Resource for Parents: Helping parents explore the role of coach and ally. 2006. Online: http://www.ccdf.ca/ccdf/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/a_career_development_resource_for_parents_e.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Applicant Tracking Systems – ATS

    Applicant tracking systems – ATS (also automated resume screeners) are software applications that enable the electronic handling of recruitment needs and are designed for recruitment tracking purposes. In many cases they filter applications automatically based on given criteria such as former employers, years of experience and schools attended. Resumes are submitted online and then stored in a database, where searches occur to match resumes to job openings – sometimes even beyond the current opening. Someone has to program keywords and key phrases into the computer so it can do a search and perform the resume screening.

    Weber, Lauren, “Your Résumé vs. Oblivion.” The Wall Street Journal, January 24, 2012. Online: http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052970204624204577178941034941330 (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Work Coach Café. “Career Dictionary” Online: http://www.workcoachcafe.com/career-dictionary-definitions/ (Retrieved on May 28, 2014)


    Apprenticeship

    Apprenticeship is a form of post-secondary training that teaches the skills and competencies necessary to perform tasks to an industry standard. It combines paid on-the-job learning under the supervision of a journeyperson with short periods of formal classroom instruction, ending with a certification exam. Apprenticeship leads to certification or licensing in the trades. In Canada, apprenticeship is regulated by the provinces and territories.

    Canada Career Information Partnership. A Career Development Resource for Parents: Helping parents explore the role of coach and ally. 2006. Online: http://www.ccdf.ca/ccdf/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/a_career_development_resource_for_parents_e.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Canadian Apprenticeship Forum and Skills Canada. “What’s an Apprenticeship?” Careers in Trades. Online: http://www.careersintrades.ca/index.php?page=what-is-an-apprenticeship&hl=en_CA (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)


    Aptitude

    Aptitude is an ability, tendency, or capacity in a specific area or discipline, inherited or acquired as the result of environment and life experiences, and is usually measurable with aptitude tests. Aptitudes can be used to predict how likely a person is to succeed in certain environments.

    Business Dictionary.com, “Aptitude.” Online: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/aptitude.html (Retrieved on August 13, 2014)

    Landine, Jeffrey and John Stewart, “Assessment in Career Guidance.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.434.


    Assessing

    Assessing is the initial step of information gathering and needs determination. Assessing involves gathering information, identifying issues and clarifying personal and environmental resources in relation to the issues. Assessing helps individuals to increase self-awareness, understand their career development, establish work, learning and/or life balance goals, and provides a foundation for taking action.

    Canada Career Information Partnership. A Career Development Resource for Parents: Helping parents explore the role of coach and ally. 2006. Online: http://www.ccdf.ca/ccdf/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/a_career_development_resource_for_parents_e.pdf

    Assessment

    Assessment is a process involving gathering information, identifying issues, needs, and clarifying personal and environmental resources in relation to the issues and needs. Assessment helps individuals to increase self-awareness; understand their career issues; establish work, learning, and/or life balance goals; and provides a foundation for taking action and an indicator of ongoing progress. Assessment methods may include a variety of formal and informal techniques such as standardized and non-standardized instruments, interviews, personality measures, questionnaires, checklists, behavioural observations, and reports by significant others. Assessment can be done in an individual or group context.

    Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners. Glossary of Career Development Terms. 2012. Online: http://career-dev-guidelines.org/career_dev/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Glossary-of-Terms-changes-from-CD-Chapter-re-counselling.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Asset-based Community Development (ABCD)

    Asset-based Community Development (ABCD) involves identifying and tapping all of the potential assets in a neighborhood or community. This approach is based on the premise that communities can and should drive their own economic development by tapping into existing but often overlooked assets to create opportunities at the local level. An asset-based approach to community-level planning encourages a shift from “needs” and “problems” toward “assets,” “capacities” and “opportunities” for a sustained livelihood.

    Coady International Institute at St. Francis Xavier University, “About ABCD.” Online: http://www.coady.stfx.ca/themes/abcd/ (Retrieved on May 28, 2014)

    Collaborative for Neighborhood Transformation, “What is Asset Based Community Development (ABCD).” Online: http://www.neighborhoodtransformation.net/pdfs/What_%20is_Asset_Based_Community_Development.pdf (Retrieved on May 28, 2014)

    Fisher, Scott, Waylon Greggain and Blythe C. Shepard, “Community Capacity Building as a Model for Career Development Planning.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.482.


    Automated Resume Screeners

    See Applicant Tracking Systems

     

    B

    Barriers to Employment

    Barriers to employment refers to obstacles people experience when looking for work or trying to keep a job. They do not make finding or keeping a job impossible, just more difficult. Some people experience multiple barriers to employment. Some barriers, such as lack of transportation, are temporary and easier to address than others.

    Among typical barriers experienced by newcomers to Canada, for instance, are a lack of Canadian accreditation, lack of Canadian experience, lack of knowledge about Canadian workplace culture, low proficiency in English, isolation, and depression.

    Hill, Stephen, “Employment Counselling and Poverty.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.244.

    iSeek, “Barriers to Employment.” Online: http://www.iseek.org/jobs/barriers-employment.html (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Victoria Immigrant and Refugee Centre Society (VIRCS), “Potential Barriers to Employment for Immigrant Job Seekers.” Online: http://www.vircs.bc.ca/barriers.php (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)


    Basic Needs Approach

    The basic needs approach is one of the major approaches to the measurement of absolute poverty in developing countries. Basic needs measures (BMN) attempts to define the absolute minimum resources necessary for long-term physical well-being, usually in terms of consumption goods. The poverty line is then defined as the amount of income required to satisfy those needs. The cut-off point is based on the cost of a basket of goods needed to meet the basic physical needs for long-term survival. The basic needs approach was introduced by the International Labour Organization’s World Employment Conference in 1976.

    Hill, Stephen, “Employment Counselling and Poverty.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.243.

    Jolly, Richard. “The World Employment Conference: The Enthronement of Basic Needs”. Development Policy Review A9 (2): 31–44, October 1976. Online: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-7679.1976.tb00338.x/abstract;jsessionid=BEB2B6B95ABF69ECF78300088474674B.f03t02 (Retrieved on May 28, 2014)


    Behavioural Interviewing

    Behavioural interviewing looks at things in one’s past as evidence of how they might handle situations in the future. They are based on the belief that a person’s past performance on the job is the best predictor of future performance. Behavioural interviews differ from regular interviews by the type of questions asked. The questions used seek to find out how a person will act and react in certain circumstances and how this person would handle different types of situations. They will also elicit “real life” examples of how a candidate has behaved in situations relating to the questions. Many employers now turn to behavioral interview techniques with the hope of improving retention and success rates.

    Doyle, Alison, “What is a Behavioral Interview?” About.com. Online: http://jobsearch.about.com/od/behavorialinterviews/f/what-is-a-behavioral-interview.htm (Retrieved on May 28, 2014)

    Work Coach Café. “Career Dictionary” Online: http://www.workcoachcafe.com/career-dictionary-definitions/ (Retrieved on May 28, 2014)


    Boundaryless Career

    Boundaryless careers are occupational paths that are not bounded within specific organizations but grow through project-based competency development across firms in an industry network.

    Michael Arthur & Denise Rousseau “A New Employment Principle for a New Organizational Era.”

    Branding

    Branding is a name, term, sign, symbol, design, or a combination of these developed to identify and differentiate the goods and services of one organization from those of other organizations. If a product or company is branded well, just the product name itself conjures up an image that directs us to things the company wants us to think about. This both simplifies and focuses the product message making it easier to differentiate from all the other products out there.

    Boyd, Sandra and Kim Spurgeon, “Lifelong Career Management.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.406.

    Work Coach Café. “Career Dictionary” Online: http://www.workcoachcafe.com/career-dictionary-definitions/ (Retrieved on May 28, 2014)

    C

    Career

    Career is a lifestyle concept that involves the sequence of occupations (paid and unpaid) in which one engages throughout a lifetime, including work, learning and leisure activities. A career can go through many changes and we only get one. Everything we experience while we work takes place under the umbrella of our career. Careers are unique to each person and are dynamic, unfolding throughout our lives. Careers include how persons balance their paid and unpaid work and personal life roles.Seeing a career as a single entity allows us to interpret relationship with work at a personal level. Exploring the individual relationship with work – especially through values, talents and goals – gives one a better chance of making it a success.
    Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners. Glossary of Career Development Terms. 2012. Online: http://career-dev-guidelines.org/career_dev/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Glossary-of-Terms-changes-from-CD-Chapter-re-counselling.pdf  (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Diamond, Paul. Explore Your Career. Online: http://exploreyourcareer.com As quoted on Work Coach Café, “Career 101: What Is a Career?” Online: http://www.workcoachcafe.com/career-dictionary-definitions/career-101-what-is-a-career/ (Retrieved on May 28, 2014)

    Education Queensland, “What is a Career?” Online: http://education.qld.gov.au/students/service/career/careered-whatis.html (Retrieved on May 29, 2014)


    Career Change

    See Career Transition.


    Career Coaching

    Career coaching is the process of working with people to help them assess their skills and make critical and informed career development decisions, as well as helping them to use various tools—résumés, cover letters, LinkedIn profiles—to accomplish their career goals. In general, career coaching tends to be a solution-oriented approach, which involves working with clients to see what concrete steps they can take to achieve their career objectives. It helps people to assess their professional situations with a greater degree of honesty.

    Cheeks, Demetrius, “10 Things You Should Know About Career Coaching.” Forbes (July 9, 2013). Online: http://www.forbes.com/sites/learnvest/2013/07/09/10-things-you-should-know-about-career-coaching (Retrieved on May 29, 2014).

    Career Counselling

    Career counselling refers to an individual or group process which emphasizes self-awareness and a better understanding of the world of work. It helps people to develop a satisfying and meaningful life/work direction by helping them make career, educational and life decisions. Career counselling is used to guide learning, work and transition decisions, as well as to manage responses to changing work and learning environments over the lifespan. Its predominant ethos is one of facilitation rather than of advice-giving. Career counselling relationships vary according to need.

    Boise State University, “What is career counselling?” Online: http://career.boisestate.edu/whatiscareercounseling/ (Retrieved on May 29, 2014).

    Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners. Glossary of Career Development Terms. 2012. Online: http://career-dev-guidelines.org/career_dev/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Glossary-of-Terms-changes-from-CD-Chapter-re-counselling.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Sheppard, Glenn. “What is Counselling? A Search for a Definition.” Notebook on Ethics, Legal Issues, and Standards for Counsellors. Online: http://www.ccpa-accp.ca/_documents/NotebookEthics/What%20is%20Counselling%20A%20Search%20for%20a%20Definition.pdf (Retrieved on August 13, 2014).


    Career Counsellor

    A career counsellor provides counselling in educational, career and personal domains. A career counsellor assists individuals to achieve greater self-awareness, develop a life/work direction, increase understanding of learning and work opportunities and become self-directed in managing learning, work and transitions. Career counsellors have a unique scope of practice and specialized counselling competencies–they are fully competent career development practitioners and also fully competent counsellors.

    Canada Career Information Partnership. A Career Development Resource for Parents: Helping parents explore the role of coach and ally. 2006. Online: http://www.ccdf.ca/ccdf/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/a_career_development_resource_for_parents_e.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association. “Who are Counsellors?” Online: http://www.ccpa-accp.ca/en/theprofession/whoarecounsellors/ (Retrieved on August 13, 2014)

    Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners. Glossary of Career Development Terms. 2012. Online: http://career-dev-guidelines.org/career_dev/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Glossary-of-Terms-changes-from-CD-Chapter-re-counselling.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)


    Career Decision Self-efficacy

    Career decision self-efficacy is an individual’s degree of belief that he or she can successfully complete tasks necessary to making significant career decisions.

    Betz, Nancy E. and Karen M. Taylor, “Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale.” MindGarden.com. Online: http://www.mindgarden.com/products/cdse.htm (Retrieved on May 29, 2014).

    Caverley, Natasha, Seanna Quressette, Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani, “Emerging Trends.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.573.


    Career Development

    Career development is the lifelong process of managing learning, work, leisure, and transitions in order to move toward a personally determined and evolving preferred future. There are a number of factors that influence career development, including interests, abilities, values, personality, background, and circumstances. Career development encompasses the development of the whole person and is more than just deciding on a major or a job; It really is a lifelong process, meaning that throughout life a person changes, situations change, and every individual must continually make career and life decisions.

    Boise State University, “What is career counselling?” Online: http://career.boisestate.edu/whatiscareercounseling/ (Retrieved on May 29, 2014).

    Canadian Council for Career Development, “What is Career Development?” Online: http://cccda.org/cccda/index.php/the-career-development-profession/what-is-career-development (Retrieved on August 13, 2014)

    Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners. Glossary of Career Development Terms. 2012. Online: http://career-dev-guidelines.org/career_dev/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Glossary-of-Terms-changes-from-CD-Chapter-re-counselling.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)


    Career Development Practitioner (CDP)

    Career practitioners, or career development practitioners (CDPs), facilitate the ability of clients to take charge of their own career development by assisting them in the process of identifying and accessing resources, planning, and managing for their career-life development. It is used as an umbrella term that refers to any direct service provider in the career development field. This includes but is not limited to: career practitioners, career educators, career information specialists, career management consultants, work development officers, employment support workers, work experience coordinators, job developers, placement coordinators, career coaches, and vocational rehabilitation workers.

    Although the term “counsellor” has historically been used with many job titles in the field (e.g., employment counsellors, rehabilitation counsellors, career counsellors), in recent years there has been increasing recognition that a “career counsellor” has a specific scope of practice. Employers are encouraged to use titles without “counselling” in them for all employees and service providers who are not professional counsellors/therapists.

    Career practitioners can provide direct services in the areas of:

    • Career education
    • Career counselling
    • Employment counselling
    • Human resources development
    • Career coaching
    • Training in employment skills
    • Training in work-related areas
    • Vocational rehabilitation
    • Prior Learning assessment and recognition
    • Life skills
    • etc.
    Canadian Council for Career Development. What do Career Development Practitioners do? Online: http://cccda.org/cccda/index.php/the-career-development-profession/what-do-career-develoment-practitioners-do (Retrieved on August 7, 2014)

    Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners. Glossary of Career Development Terms. 2012. Online: http://career-dev-guidelines.org/career_dev/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Glossary-of-Terms-changes-from-CD-Chapter-re-counselling.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)


    Career Education

    Career education is the curricula and programs that provide information and experiences that help youth make meaningful career and education decisions, and is generally administered in K-12. It equips students and young people to make meaningful links between general education and work-life roles; to make relevant career choices across their lifespan; to develop a positive attitudes towards change; and to manage recurrent career transitions. Career education can also refer to educational training related to a specific career field.

    Shepard, Blythe C. and Priya S. Mani, “Career Development for Students.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.355.

    Career Educator

    A career educator works with individuals or groups in educational settings to assist them to learn career development knowledge, skills and applications. Career educators help youth and adult learners to construct their careers through acquiring knowledge and skills that will enable them to identify, choose, plan and prepare for learning, training, work and other life-roles.

    Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners. Glossary of Career Development Terms. 2012. Online: http://career-dev-guidelines.org/career_dev/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Glossary-of-Terms-changes-from-CD-Chapter-re-counselling.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Career Exploration

    Career exploration is the process of reflecting on self and learning about the world of work, identifying and exploring potentially satisfying occupations and their corresponding training and educational requirements, and developing an effective strategy to realize your goals, as a basis for making career-life choices over the lifespan.

    Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners. Glossary of Career Development Terms. 2012. Online: http://career-dev-guidelines.org/career_dev/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Glossary-of-Terms-changes-from-CD-Chapter-re-counselling.pdf  (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    UC Berkeley Career Centre, “Career Exploration.” Online: https://career.berkeley.edu/info/careerexp.stm (Updated on April 22, 2013).


    Career Guidance

    Career guidance consists of services that help people successfully manage their career development. It is an inclusive term that has been used to describe a range of interventions including career education and counselling, that help people to move from a general understanding of life and work to a specific understanding of the realistic life, learning and work options that are open to them. Career guidance is often thought to incorporate career information, career education and career counselling.

    Rosenberg McKay, Dawn. “What is Career Guidance.” About Career Planning. Online: http://careerplanning.about.com/od/careerchoicechan/f/career-guidance.htm (Retrieved on August 13, 2014)

    Career Information

    Career information is information related to the world of work that can be useful in the process of career development, including educational, occupational and psycho-social information related to working (e.g., availability of training, the nature of work, the status of workers in different occupations, etc.). It is used to support all areas of the career development process.

    The terms “career information,” “occupational information,” and “labour market information” overlap. Broadly defined, these terms encompass the full range of information about labour market conditions and trends, including employment and unemployment, industry and occupational employment and wages, labour market projections, individual workers or jobseekers, and providers of education and training. Also included is information about specific industries, occupations, and careers, such as qualifications, job duties, educational requirements, working conditions and work settings, compensation, employers, and current job vacancies.

    Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners. Glossary of Career Development Terms. 2012. Online: http://career-dev-guidelines.org/career_dev/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Glossary-of-Terms-changes-from-CD-Chapter-re-counselling.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Clearinghouse on Adult, Career and Vocational Education. Using Online Occupational Information for Career Development. Online: http://www.calpro-online.org/eric/docs/pfile04.htm (Retrieved on September 4, 2014)

    O’Reilly, E. Making Career Sense of Labour Market Information. 2d ed. Ottawa, Ontario: Canadian Career Development Foundation, 2001. http://www.makingcareersense.org


    Career Information Specialist

    A career information specialist helps clients access relevant information needed for their career decision making process. The Career Information Specialist identifies, secures, manages and interprets career information for their clients. This includes national and international labour market, education, occupation and job search resources.

    Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners. Glossary of Career Development Terms. 2012. Online: http://career-dev-guidelines.org/career_dev/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Glossary-of-Terms-changes-from-CD-Chapter-re-counselling.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Career Management

    Career management is a lifelong, self-monitored process of career planning that focuses on choosing and setting personal goals and formulating strategies for achieving them.

    Business Dictionary.com, “Career management.” Online: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/career-management.html (Retrieved on August 6, 2014)

    McKinnon, Kerri and Kathleen Johnston, “Career Planning, Knowledge, and Skills.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.194.

    Scivicque, Chrissy. “Career Management: Defining the Process and Purpose.” Eat Your Career, July 29th, 2010. Online: http://www.eatyourcareer.com/2010/07/career-management-defining-process-purpose/ (Retrieved on August 13, 2014)


    Career Maturity

    Career maturity is the attitudinal and cognitive readiness to cope with the developmental tasks of finding, preparing for, getting established in, pursuing, and retiring from an occupation. It expresses an individual’s readiness to make educational and vocational choices, including planfulness or time perspective, exploration, information, decision making, and reality orientation.

    Landine, Jeffrey and John Stewart, “Assessment in Career Guidance.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.434.

    Patton, Wendy and Jan Lokan, “Perspectives on Donald Super’s Construct of Career Maturity.” International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 2001, Volume 1, Issue 1-2, pp 31-48. Online: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023%2FA%3A1016964629452#page-1 (Retrieved on August 6, 2014)

    Shepard, Blythe C. and Priya S. Mani, “Career Development for Students.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.355.


    Career Path

    Career path refers to the series of any combination of work roles, occupations, or jobs that a person moves through by design and coincidence as their career unfolds. This route starts with the first job and continues to encompass the roles throughout the entire career. From the company or industry perspective, a career path is a route that may be taken by workers within a matrix of positions that are connected by increased and new acquisition of skills and knowledge.

    Canada Career Information Partnership. A Career Development Resource for Parents: Helping parents explore the role of coach and ally. 2006. Online: http://www.ccdf.ca/ccdf/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/a_career_development_resource_for_parents_e.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    HR Zone, “Career Path definition.” Online: http://www.hrzone.com/hr-glossary/career-path-definition (Retrieved on August 6, 2014)


    Career Planning

    Career planning is an ongoing process through which a person sets career goals and identifies ways of achieving them. Through career planning, a person identify and evaluates his or her own abilities and interests, objectives, marketable skills, strengths, and weaknesses, etc., and considers alternative career opportunities, establishes career goals, and plans practical developmental activities. Career planning is not an event or end in itself, but a continuous process.

    Business Dictionnary.com. “Career Planning.” Online: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/career-planning.html (Retrieved on August 6, 2014)

    HRwale.com. “Career Planning.” Human Resources Management, 2011. Online: http://corehr.wordpress.com/hr-planning/70-2/ (Retrieved on August 13, 2014)

    McKinnon, Kerri and Kathleen Johnston, “Career Planning, Knowledge, and Skills.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.193.


    Career Portfolio

    Career portfolio is a collection of words, pictures, and/or the vast array of multimedia possibilities that demonstrate a client’s unique skills and talents. The jobseeker puts together a sample of his/her work in order to help the employer evaluate their abilities. It is commonly used when seeking certain types of employment, for instance in artistic/design fields, yet is not limited to those fields. It is used in self-marketing in order to present one’s best work. It is sometimes also known as a job skills portfolio.

    CV Tips. “Career Portfolio” in Career Glossary. Online: http://www.cvtips.com/career_glossary.html (Retrieved on August 6, 2014)

    Pickerell, Deirdre A., “Work Search Strategies.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.214.


    Career Practitioners

    See Career Development Practitioner


    Career Readiness

    Also referred to as employment readiness.

    Career readiness, or employment readiness, refers to how developmentally ready (in terms of level of exploration, awareness of implications, and maturity) clients are for making their initial career decisions. Their level of readiness will determine how ready they are to find, acquire, and keep an appropriate job, with little or no outside help, as well as to be able to manage transitions to new jobs.

    Employment Readiness Scale, “Employment Readiness.” Online: http://www.employmentreadiness.org/client/employment.cfm?wp=en&CFID=714441&CFTOKEN=80361275 (Retrieved on August 7, 2014)

    Landine, Jeffrey and John Stewart, “Assessment in Career Guidance.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.434.


    Career Responsiveness

    Career responsiveness involves a constant interaction between individuals and their environments.

    Neault, Roberta, “Theoretical Foundations of Career Development.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.147.

    Career Transition

    Career transition (or career change) is the process you think about and maybe decide to undertake when you realize the job/career you have is just not doing it for you. Career change can take place using your current job as the starting point and working from within your company to create something better for yourself (hopefully more in synch with your talents, values and spirit). Career change can also be about moving on and, no matter how long it takes, finding a new and different career you care deeply about.

    Work Coach Café. “Career Dictionary” Online: http://www.workcoachcafe.com/career-dictionary-definitions/ (Retrieved on May 28, 2014)

    Careerism

    Careerism is the overwhelming desire or urge to advance one’s own career or social status, usually at the expense of integrity, other personal interests or social growth; and the resulting attitude or behaviour that involves doing whatever possible to earn more money or get promoted at work, which might involve being dishonest, unethical, and completely focused just on one’s career and nothing else. People who practice careerism are often called “careerists.” The word “careerism” carries a negative connotation to it.

    Browne, Jennifer and Lisa Russell, “The Practice of Postsecondary Career Development.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.378.

    Merriam-Webster Dictionnary, “Careerism.” Online: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/careerism (Retrieved on August 7, 2014)

    Sahgal, Varoon. “What is Careerism?” ProgrammerInterview.com. Online: http://www.programmerinterview.com/index.php/american-vocabulary/what-is-careerism/ (Retrieved on August 13, 2014)


    Certification

    Certification refers to the issuance of a formal document attesting to a set of skills, knowledge and abilities possessed by the holder often linked to the completion of education/training requirements. More and more career development professional associations have initiated – or are in the process of initiating – certification. In Canada, there are two “streams” with respect to certification: one for Career Development Practitioners and the other for Career Counsellors. While there is overlap in these roles, the scope of practice, the requisite competencies and road to certification are distinct.

    Canada Career Information Partnership. A Career Development Resource for Parents: Helping parents explore the role of coach and ally. 2006. Online: http://www.ccdf.ca/ccdf/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/a_career_development_resource_for_parents_e.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Canadian Council for Career Development. “Certification.” Online: http://cccda.org/cccda/index.php/certification (Retrieved on August 13, 2014)


    Classism / Class Discrimination

    Classism, or class discrimination, is differential treatment based on socioeconomic class or perceived socioeconomic class. It is the systematic oppression of subordinated class groups to advantage and strengthen the dominant class groups. It’s the systematic assignment of characteristics of worth and ability based on socioeconomic class.

    Caverley, Natasha, Seanna Quressette, Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani, “Emerging Trends.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.573.

    Class Action, “What Is Classism.” Online: http://www.classism.org/about-class/what-is-classism (Retrieved on August 7, 2014)

    Merriam-Webster Dictionnary, “Classism.” Online: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/classism (Retrieved on August 7, 2014)


    Clinical Supervision

    Clinical supervision is the construction of individualized learning plans for practitioners (supervisees) working with clients. For the supervisor, it involves training and evaluating the supervisee and the quality of services provided to individual clients. Clinical supervision was formally introduced into mainstream nursing almost twenty years ago, but it is now used also in counselling, psychotherapy, and other mental health disciplines as well as many other professions engaged in working with people.

    Caverley, Natasha, Seanna Quressette, Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani, “Emerging Trends.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.574.

    Hoppin, Judith M. and Jane Goodman. Clinical Supervision of Career Development Practitioners: Practical Strategies. United States: National Career Development Association, 2014.

    Leddick, George R.”Models of Clinical Supervision.” ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Student Services. Greensboro, NC. Online: http://www.ericdigests.org/1995-1/models.htm (Retrieved on August 13, 2014)


    Closed Question

    A closed question has set answers for the interviewee to choose from and can be answered with either a single word or a short phrase. Multiple choice questions are closed questions. Closed questions are intended to give facts, are easy to answer, and leave the control of the conversation with the questioner. Also referred to as closed-ended question.

    Business Dictionnary.com. “Closed question.” Online: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/closed-question.html (Retrieved on August 7, 2014)

    ITS, “Closed question.” Psychology Dictionary. Online: http://www.itseducation.asia/psychology/c.htm (Retrieved on August 7, 2014)

    Walters, Beverley, Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani, “Developing Effective Client Relationships.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.168.


    Coach

    A coach in relation to career planning is a guide, a helper, a supporter, an encourager, a partner. They are not enforcers or directors. Coaching is a process of becoming an ally in order to help guide a person toward realizing their own ideas, learning experiences, goals and decisions.

    Canada Career Information Partnership. A Career Development Resource for Parents: Helping parents explore the role of coach and ally. 2006. Online: http://www.ccdf.ca/ccdf/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/a_career_development_resource_for_parents_e.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Collaborative Meaning-Making

    Collaborative meaning-making is a social activity that is conducted jointly by a community to generate a shared understanding of a process, outcome, and/or future goal.

    Neault, Roberta, “Theoretical Foundations of Career Development.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.147.

    Community Capacity

    Community capacity is the interaction of human, organizational, and social capital existing within a given community that can be leveraged to solve collective problems and improve or maintain the well-being of a given community. It may operate through informal social processes and/or organized efforts by individuals, organizations, and the networks of association among them and between them and the broader systems of which the community is a part.

    Fisher, Scott, Waylon Greggain and Blythe C. Shepard, “Community Capacity Building as a Model for Career Development Planning.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.482.

    Ontario Healthy Communities Coalition, “Community capacity building.” Online: http://www.ohcc-ccso.ca/fr/node/192 (Retrieved on August 7, 2014)


    Community Capacity Building

    Community capacity building refers to the processes and procedures whereby long-term strategies are developed and implemented which connect community, career and economic development in the interests of unemployment reduction and economic growth at the community level. It is an approach to identify, strengthen and link a community’s tangible resources, such as local service groups, and intangible resources like community spirit, with the goal to strengthen the skills and abilities of people and groups to empower them to contribute effectively in the development of their communities.

    Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners. Glossary of Career Development Terms. 2012. Online: http://career-dev-guidelines.org/career_dev/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Glossary-of-Terms-changes-from-CD-Chapter-re-counselling.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Fisher, Scott, Waylon Greggain and Blythe C. Shepard, “Community Capacity Building as a Model for Career Development Planning.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.483.

    Ontario Healthy Communities Coalition, “Community capacity building.” Online: http://www.ohcc-ccso.ca/fr/node/192 (Retrieved on August 7, 2014)


    Community Genogram

    Community genogram is a diagram that is used to look at an individual’s community supports. It is a versatile, graphic tool that places emphasis on the positive strengths and resources that can be brought to bear in examining the potential supports within one’s community and culture, as well as family.

    My Culture, My Identity, “Community Genogram.” Online: http://myculturemyidentity.wordpress.com/community-genogram/ (Retrieved on August 7, 2014)

    Shepard, Blythe C. and Priya S. Mani, “Career Development for Students.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.355.


    Content Validity

    Also referred to as logical validity

    Content validity refers to the extent to which a measurement represents all facets of a given social concept, and whether the assessment content and composition are appropriate, given what is being measured. For example, depression scales may lack content validity if they only look at the affective dimension of depression but fail to assess the behavioural dimension.

    Hurst, Melissa. “Validity in Assessments: Content, Construct & Predictive Validity.” Education Portal. Online: http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/validity-in-assessments-content-construct-predictive-validity.html#lesson (Retrieved on August 13, 2014)

    Landine, Jeffrey and John Stewart, “Assessment in Career Guidance.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.434.

    Pope, Greg. “Understanding Assessment Validity: Content Validity.” Online: http://blog.questionmark.com/understanding-assessment-validity-content-validity (Retrieved on August 13, 2014)


    Co-op Education

    Co-op education refers to co-operative education, a structured program that integrates work experience in a student’s field along with academic studies by alterning in-class learning with periods of actual work. The term reflects the co-operative relationship between students, schools and employers that allows students to alternate periods of study with periods of employment. This type of placement enables students to network with employers, gain valuable work experience in their chosen field and earn academic credits.

    Canadian Association for Co-operative Education. “Co-operative Education Definition.” Online: http://www.cafce.ca/coop-defined.html (Retrieved on August 13, 2014)

    Canada Career Information Partnership. A Career Development Resource for Parents: Helping parents explore the role of coach and ally. 2006. Online: http://www.ccdf.ca/ccdf/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/a_career_development_resource_for_parents_e.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Government of Canada, Services for Youth. “Co-operative Education.” Online: http://www.youth.gc.ca/eng/topics/career_planning/coop.shtml (Retrieved on August 13, 2014)


    Credentials

    Credentials are attestations of qualification, competence, or authority issued to an individual by a third party with a relevant or de facto authority or assumed competence to do so. Thus, it typically refers to formal learning and education (e.g., professional designation, degree, or diploma) required for regulated professions (e.g., engineering, trades, and medicine). However, this emphasis on formal learning has resulted in non-regulated occupations being largely overlooked.

    Examples of credentials include academic diplomas, academic degrees, certifications, security clearances, identification documents, badges, passwords, user names, keys, powers of attorney, and so on. Published works can be viewed as similar to credentials by some people, especially if the publication was peer reviewed or made in a well-known journal or reputable publisher.

    Bylsma, Lisa and Sophie C. Yohani, “Immigrants in Canada.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.270.

    Cross-Cultural Fairness

    Cross-cultural fairness requires verifying that the test is appropriate for use with a particular population and includes investigation of validity, reliability, and appropriate norm groups to which the population is to be compared. Validity and reliability take on additional dimensions in cross-cultural testing as does the question of the appropriate norm group. The instrument must be validly adapted, the test items must have conceptual and linguistic equivalence, and the test items must be bias free.

    Landine, Jeffrey and John Stewart, “Assessment in Career Guidance.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.434.

    Cybercounselling

    Also referred to as e-counselling or online counselling.

    Cybercounselling is a new and growing field that uses technological advances, such as email, videoconferencing, blogs, online chat and various other secure login/subscription-based portals or websites to deliver counselling and coaching services through the Internet.

    Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association (CCPA). “Did You Know? – Possible Pitfalls when Offering E-Counselling Services” Online: http://www.ccpa-accp.ca/en/ecounselling/ (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    KMT. “Online eCounselling” Online: http://kmtlearning.com/education/online-ecounselling/ (Retrieved on May 28, 2014)

     

    D

     Demographics

    Demographics refer to the physical characteristics of a population such as age, gender, marital status, family size, education, geographic location and occupation.

    Canada Career Information Partnership. A Career Development Resource for Parents: Helping parents explore the role of coach and ally. 2006. Online: http://www.ccdf.ca/ccdf/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/a_career_development_resource_for_parents_e.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Demographic Trends

    Demographic trends describe the historical developments and changes in demographics in a population over time. They can relate to changes in a population’s age, gender, geographical location, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, household income, race, religion, and health.

    Jarvis, Phil, “Career Development.” In In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.71.

    Diagnostic Instrument

    Diagnostic instrument is an assessment instrument that identifies areas of concern with an individual’s career development.

    Landine, Jeffrey and John Stewart, “Assessment in Career Guidance.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.434.

    Discretionary Effort

    Discretionary effort is the difference in the level of effort one brings to an activity or a task versus the minimum effort required to simply get by or make do. It is the “extra mile” an employee is willing to take when performing his/her duties.

    Aubrey Daniels International, “Discretionary Effort .” Online: http://aubreydaniels.com/discretionary-effort (Retrieved on August 14, 2014)

    Boyd, Sandra and Kim Spurgeon, “Lifelong Career Management.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.406.

    Business Dictionnary.com, “Discretionary effort.” Online: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/discretionary-effort.html (Retrieved on August 7, 2014)


    Distance Education

    Distance Education is delivered to students who are not physically in a classroom. Nowadays it includes mostly online programs and courses, but it also includes studies offered by correspondence, television programs, or video or audio means, or at an off-campus location. Often, students can study in their own time, at the place of their choice (home, work or learning centre), and without face-to-face contact with a teacher. Students may work individually or in group and communicate with their instructors using print or electronic media, or through technology (such as telephone, emails, video and online teleconferences or seminar). Technology is a critical element of distance education.

    Students can study in their own time, at the place of their choice (home, work or learning centre), and without face-to-face contact with a teacher. Technology is a critical element of distance education. – See more at: http://www.tonybates.ca/2008/07/07/what-is-distance-education/#sthash.2L19V6aH.dpuf
    Bates, Tony, “What Is Distance Education?.” Online Learning and Distance Education Resources. Online: http://www.tonybates.ca/2008/07/07/what-is-distance-education/ (Retrieved on August 14, 2014)

    Canada Career Information Partnership. A Career Development Resource for Parents: Helping parents explore the role of coach and ally. 2006. Online: http://www.ccdf.ca/ccdf/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/a_career_development_resource_for_parents_e.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)


    Downsizing

    Downsizing is the permanent reduction in an organization’s workforce. It occurs when an organisation is looking to reduce the number of its employees through restructuring in order to increase profit and maximize efficiency. It may also result from a merger of two companies, or when a company cuts a product line or service, and can be the result of poor economic conditions.

    Boyd, Sandra and Kim Spurgeon, “Lifelong Career Management.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.406.

    Doyle, Alison. “What is Downsizing?.” About Careers. Online: http://jobsearch.about.com/od/jobsearchglossary/g/downsizing.htm (Retrieved on August 14, 2014)

    Human Resources Institute of New Zealand (HRINZ). “Downsizing.” Human Resources Knowledge Base. Online: http://www.hrinz.org.nz/Site/Resources/Knowledge_Base/A-H/Downsizing_.aspx (Retrieved on August 14, 2014)

    Merriam-Webster Dictionnary, “Downsize.” Online: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/downsize (Retrieved on August 7, 2014)

    E

    Electronic-Portfolio (e-Portfolio)

    Also referred to as online or digital portfolio.

    An e-portfolio is a collection or aggregation of digital resources that captures and stores online the experiences, progress and achievement of individuals throughout a series of activities such as academic programs, experiential learning or career development that is presented or shared with a specifically selected audience. Such electronic evidence may include text, electronic files, images, multimedia, blog entries, hyperlinks, etc. e-Portfolios are both demonstrations of the user’s abilities and platforms for self-expression, and can be maintained dynamically over time. They are used to prepare for a job search or for career advancement. e-Portfolios are now taking the place of the traditional paper-based portfolios. They are often accompanied by a reflective component.

    Memorial University, Career Development and Experiential Learning. “What is an ePortfolio?.” Online: http://www.mun.ca/cdel/eportfolio/ (Retrieved on August 14, 2014)

    Shepard, Blythe C. and Priya S. Mani, “Career Development for Students.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.355.

    Zimmerman, Eilene, “Showcasing Your Work, in an Online Portfolio”. The New York Times (30 June 2012). Online: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/01/jobs/an-online-portfolio-can-showcase-your-work-career-couch.html?_r=0 (Retrieved on August 14, 2014)


    Emotional Intelligence

    Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to recognize and understand our emotions (as well as emotions of those around us) and of managing how we react to them. The basic idea is, rather than letting our emotions control us, we instead learn to identify them when they arise, recognize their causes and outcomes, and as best we can control them – or at least our reactions to them. Emotional intelligence also involves the perception of other people’s emotions: when you understand how they feel, this allows you to manage relationships more effectively. Some researchers suggest that emotional intelligence can be learned and strengthened, while others claim it is an inborn characteristic.

    Cherry, Kendra. “What Is Emotional Intelligence?.” About.com Psychology. Online: http://psychology.about.com/od/personalitydevelopment/a/emotionalintell.htm (Retrieved on August 14, 2014)

    Mind Tools, “Emotional Intelligence: Developing Strong People Skills.” Online: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newCDV_59.htm (Retrieved on August 14, 2014)

    Psychology Today, “What Is Emotional Intelligence?” Psych Basics. Online: http://www.psychologytoday.com/basics/emotional-intelligence (Retrieved on August 14, 2014)

    Work Coach Café. “Career Dictionary” Online: http://www.workcoachcafe.com/career-dictionary-definitions/ (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)


    Employment Counselling

    Employment counselling refers to a problem-solving process addressing one or more of the following domains: career/occupational decision-making, skill enhancement, job search and employment maintenance. With the support of an employment counsellor, clients set up an employment action plan with the goal of finding permanent, suitable employment. The purpose of employment counselling is to help clients improve their employability and self-sufficiency in the labour market.

    Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA), BC Division, “Employment Counselling.” Online: http://cmha.bc.ca/empl-svcs/define.php?ser=EMCN (Retrieved on August 14, 2014)

    Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners. Glossary of Career Development Terms. 2012. Online: http://career-dev-guidelines.org/career_dev/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Glossary-of-Terms-changes-from-CD-Chapter-re-counselling.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Government of New Brunswick, Department of Post-Secondary Education, Training and Labour. “Employment Counselling.” Online: http://www2.gnb.ca/content/gnb/en/services/services_renderer.5095.Employment_Counselling.html (Retrieved on August 14, 2014)


    Employment Counsellor

    Employment counsellors work collaboratively with individuals to assess needs related to decision-making, job search skills, training, and employment maintenance, in order to help individuals search for permanent employment and improve their employability and self-sufficiency in the labour market.

    Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners. Glossary of Career Development Terms. 2012. Online: http://career-dev-guidelines.org/career_dev/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Glossary-of-Terms-changes-from-CD-Chapter-re-counselling.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Government of New Brunswick, Department of Post-Secondary Education, Training and Labour. “Employment Counselling.” Online: http://www2.gnb.ca/content/gnb/en/services/services_renderer.5095.Employment_Counselling.html (Retrieved on August 14, 2014)


    Employment Insurance (EI)

    Employment Insurance (EI) is a national program for Canadian workers who are laid off. Canadian workers pay into a central fund that contributors can temporarily draw on if later they are unable to work.

    Hill, Stephen, “Employment Counselling and Poverty.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.243.

    Enabling

    Enabling is “helping clients to implement their choices.” It involves supporting individuals in meeting the demands of the workplace or education, such as teaching job search or study skills and/or dealing with agencies providing or influencing learning/employment opportunities.

    Canada Career Information Partnership. A Career Development Resource for Parents: Helping parents explore the role of coach and ally. 2006. Online: http://www.ccdf.ca/ccdf/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/a_career_development_resource_for_parents_e.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Essential Skills

    Essential Skills are the skills needed for work, learning and other activities of daily life. They provide the foundation for learning all other skills, such as technical skills, and enable people to evolve with their jobs and adapt to change.

    Canada Career Information Partnership. A Career Development Resource for Parents: Helping parents explore the role of coach and ally. 2006. Online: http://www.ccdf.ca/ccdf/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/a_career_development_resource_for_parents_e.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Essential Skills Ontario. “About Literacy and Essential Skills.” Online: http://www.essentialskillsontario.ca/essential-skills/about (Retrieved on August 14, 2014)

    Government of Ontario, Ministry of Education. “Essential Skills (ES).” Ontario Skills Passport. Online: http://www.skills.edu.gov.on.ca/OSP2Web/EDU/DisplayEssentialSkills.xhtml (Retrieved on August 14, 2014)

    Literacy Link South Central, “What are Essential Skills?” Online: http://www.llsc.on.ca/literacy-essential-skills/what-are-essential-skills (Retrieved on August 14, 2014)


    Ethical Conflict

    Ethical conflict occurs when two or more ethical principles demand opposite results in the same situation, leading to a paradox where neither choice leaves the individual satisfied. In the workplace, ethical conflict can happen when, for instance, an employee keeps quiet about someone else’s misconduct in the workplace in order to save his own job. Solving ethical conflicts may require establishing a hierarchy or priority of ethical principles, or examining the situation through another ethical system.

    Huebsch, Russell, “What Is Ethical Conflict?.” eHow. Online: http://www.ehow.com/facts_7385389_ethical-conflict_.html (Retrieved on August 7, 2014)

    Peruniak, Geoffrey S., “Professional Ethics, Role, and the Whole Person.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.124.


    Ethics

    Ethics (or moral philosophy) is the systemization and defence of concepts of right and wrong behaviour (Adapted from Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy http://www.iep.utm.edu/ethics/).

    Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, “Ethics.” Online: http://www.iep.utm.edu/ethics/ (Retrieved on August 14, 2014)

    Peruniak, Geoffrey S., “Professional Ethics, Role, and the Whole Person.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.124.


    Ethno-cultural Divisions

    Ethno-cultural divisions are social divisions created by differences in nationality, ethnicity, clan, or tribe. For refugees or immigrants these divisions can be similar to the ones they faced in their home country.

    Sutherland, Stephen J. and Hany Ibrahim, “Refugees in Canada: From Persecution to Preparedness.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.292.

    Evidence-based Practice (EBP)

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is an interdisciplinary approach to clinical practice that use mental and behavioural health interventions for which systematic empirical research has provided evidence of effectiveness as treatments for specific problems. EBP promotes the collection, interpretation, and integration of valid and applicable patient-reported, clinician-observed, and research-derived evidence.

    Hiebert, Bryan and Kris Magnusson, “The Power of Evidence: Demonstrating the Value of Career Development Services.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.519.

    Hjørland, Birger (2011). “Evidence based practice: An analysis based on the philosophy of science”. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 62 (7): 1301–10. Online: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.21523/abstract;jsessionid=E3F095EEA3675F126C9DDBB09FBA2E99.f01t03 (Retrieved on August 7, 2014)


    Experiential Learning

    Experiential learning is learning that is based on students being directly involved in a learning experience rather than their being recipients of ready-made content in the form of lectures. It is inductive, action-oriented, and learner centred with emphasis on the process of learning rather than the product. With experiential learning, knowledge is created from the combinations of grasping and transforming experience.

    Experiential learning is often viewed as a cyclic five-phase process where: (a) an activity occurs, (b) observations are shared, (c) patterns are determined, (d) inferences and principles are derived, and (e) learning is applied.

    Cherry, Kendra. “Experiential Learning; David Kolb’s Theory of Learning.” About.com Psychology. Online: http://psychology.about.com/od/educationalpsychology/a/experiential-learning.htm  (Retrieved on August 7, 2014)

    Peruniak, Geoffrey S., “Professional Ethics, Role, and the Whole Person.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.124.


    Exploration Stage

    Exploration stage is when the individual begins to investigate the careers that are of interest to them by “trying things out” through classes, work experience, and/or hobbies, and generally happen around age 15-20. They learn the skills that are required and develop their knowledge, skills, and abilities to enter career fields that appeal to them.

    Project Aspiro, “The Career Development Process.” Online: http://projectaspiro.com/en/friends-and-family/Pages/Career-Development-process.aspx (Retrieved on August 14, 2014)

    Shepard, Blythe C. and Priya S. Mani, “Career Development for Students.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.355.

    F

    Face Validity

    Face validity is related to content validity, but instead of assessing what the test measures, it assesses if the test seems to measure what it is intended to measure. Essentially, researchers and participants are simply taking the validity of the test at face value by looking at whether a test appears to measure the target variable, and if it “looks valid” to all involved.

    Cherry, Kendra, “What Is Face Validity?.” About.com Psychology. Online: http://psychology.about.com/od/findex/g/face-validity.htm (Retrieved on August 14, 2014)

    Landine, Jeffrey and John Stewart, “Assessment in Career Guidance.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.435.


    Facilitated Individual and Group Learning

    Facilitated Individual and Group Learning refers to applying learning principles in order to design, develop, adapt and deliver a range of experiential activities leading to knowledge and skill acquisition. Activities are tailored towards meeting specific career-life planning needs of individuals or groups of clients. Learning activities may occur in one-on-one interview meetings, in classrooms (usually by guidance counsellors and co-operative education teachers), in supervised work experience (co-operative education teachers), and/or workshop settings.

    Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners. Glossary of Career Development Terms. 2012. Online: http://career-dev-guidelines.org/career_dev/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Glossary-of-Terms-changes-from-CD-Chapter-re-counselling.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    First Nations

    First Nations refers to Status and Non-Status Aboriginal people in Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis. Status Indians are registered under the Indian Act, and Non-Status are not. Many communities also use the term “First Nation” in the name of their community. Currently, there are over 630 First Nation communities, which represent more than 50 nations or cultural groups and 50 Aboriginal languages.

    Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada. “First Nations.” Online: https://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1100100013791/1100100013795 (Retrieved on August 7, 2014)

    Arthur, Nancy and Sandra Collins, “Diversity and Social Justice.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.97.


    Formal Economy

    The formal economy is defined by the exchange of labour (product or service) for a recognized form of currency. It encompasses all jobs with normal hours and regular wages, and are recognized as income sources on which income taxes must be paid.

    Business Dictionary.com, “Formal sector.” Online: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/formal-sector.html (Retrieved on August 14, 2014)

    Canada Career Information Partnership. A Career Development Resource for Parents: Helping parents explore the role of coach and ally. 2006. Online: http://www.ccdf.ca/ccdf/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/a_career_development_resource_for_parents_e.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)


    Formal Learning

    Formal learning takes the form of education, training or development, usually systematic and through an institution with some kind of institutional recognition or credentials. It is organised and structured, and has learning objectives. From the learner’s standpoint, it is always intentional: i.e. the learner’s explicit objective is to gain knowledge, skills and/or competences. Typical examples are learning that takes place within the initial education and training system or workplace training arranged by the employer.

    Canada Career Information Partnership. A Career Development Resource for Parents: Helping parents explore the role of coach and ally. 2006. Online: http://www.ccdf.ca/ccdf/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/a_career_development_resource_for_parents_e.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    OECD. “Recognition of Non-formal and Informal Learning.” Skills beyond school. Online: http://www.oecd.org/edu/skills-beyond-school/recognitionofnon-formalandinformallearning-home.htm (Retrieved on August 14, 2014)

    G

    Gap Year

    Gap year is associated with taking time out to travel between life stages. It refers to a period of time in which students disengage from curricular education and undertake non-curricular activities, such as travel, volunteering, or work.

    Shepard, Blythe C. and Priya S. Mani, “Career Development for Students.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.355.

    Generation

    Generational cohorts, or generations, are groups of people who share birth years, history, and a collective personality as a result of their defining experiences. It is however important to recognize diversity within cohorts as much as the diversity between them.

    Jarvis, Phil, “Career Development.” In In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.71.

    Gig Economy

    Also referred to as freelance or shared economy.

    The gig economy includes temporary, part-time, freelance and contract work in a variety of task-based employment situations. The gig economy provides workers with flexibility, increased employment mobility and entrepreneurial opportunities. Criticisms of the gig economy center around shifting the burden of economic risk onto workers.Workers who engage in the gig economy may receive an unstable/unpredictable income, lack employment and health benefits and receive low wages for their work.

    A Middle Ground Between Contract Worker and Employee Online: http://www.nytimes.com/2015/12/11/business/a-middle-ground-between-contract-worker-and-employee.html

    Working in the Gig Economy Is Both Desirable and Detestable. Online: http://fortune.com/2016/04/27/uber-gig-economy/ (Retrieved on August 11, 2016).

    Essential Career Advice For The Freelance Economy. Online: http://www.forbes.com/sites/nextavenue/2016/03/21/essential-career-advice-for-the-freelance-economy/#101eb46c21a6.

    Globalization

    Globalization commonly refers to the spread and connectedness of production, communication, and technologies across the world. That spread has involved the interlacing of economic and cultural activity. The speed of communication and exchange, the complexity and size of the networks involved, and the sheer volume of trade, interaction and risk give what we now label as “globalization.” For instance, globalization of trade means freer and more intense worldwide trade across national borders.

    Boyd, Sandra and Kim Spurgeon, “Lifelong Career Management.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.406.

    Canada Career Information Partnership. A Career Development Resource for Parents: Helping parents explore the role of coach and ally. 2006. Online: http://www.ccdf.ca/ccdf/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/a_career_development_resource_for_parents_e.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)


    Goal Setting

    Goal setting is a two-part process of deciding what one wants to accomplish and then devising an action plan to achieve the result one desires. Setting goals helps people work towards their own objectives. Goal setting that involves establishing specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time-targeted goals is referred to as S.M.A.R.T goal setting.

    McKinnon, Kerri and Kathleen Johnston, “Career Planning, Knowledge, and Skills.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.194.

    MindTools, “Personal Goal Setting; Planning to Live Your Life Your Way.” Online: http://www.mindtools.com/page6.html (Retrieved on August 7, 2014)


    Guidance Counsellors

    Guidance counsellors are professionals who offer academic, career, university/college or postsecondary, social advice, and guidance to children in Grades K through 12. A guidance counsellor is employed with a school board, elementary or secondary school. Key activities include providing guidance to students on personal and learning-related issues. A major emphasis is post-secondary education and training choices with a minor emphasis on school-to-work related issues.

    Canada Career Information Partnership. A Career Development Resource for Parents: Helping parents explore the role of coach and ally. 2006. Online: http://www.ccdf.ca/ccdf/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/a_career_development_resource_for_parents_e.pdf  (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Shepard, Blythe C. and Priya S. Mani, “Career Development for Students.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.356.

    H

    Hard Skills

    Hard skills are specific, teachable abilities gained through experience and education that can be defined, quantified and measured. Examples include speaking a foreign language, typing speed, a degree, and proficiency in computer programming.

    Boyd, Sandra and Kim Spurgeon, “Lifelong Career Management.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.406.

    Investopedia, “Hard Skills.” Online: http://www.investopedia.com/terms/h/hard-skills.asp (Retrieved on August 7, 2014)


    Hidden Job market

    Hidden job market refers to job openings that are not advertised or publicly listed. This happens because it is often easier for an employer to hire a person connected to someone in their network: hire someone referred to someone they trust is less risky than hiring a complete stranger, and they also don’t have to go through the hassle of advertising the job, sifting through résumés and interviewing people. The most effective means for accessing this market are by word of mouth, active networking, social online networking, and unsolicited approaches to potential employers.

    It also applies to situations where a job can be created, adapted, or modified for particular individuals.

    Government of Canada, Services for Youth. The hidden job market. Online: http://www.youth.gc.ca/eng/topics/jobs/looking.shtml (Retrieved on August 7, 2014)

    Pickerell, Deirdre A., “Work Search Strategies.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.214.


    Holistic Perspective

    A holistic perspective ensures that services are offered in an inclusive manner, respectful of and sensitive to diversity. Service providers take account of the complex, multifaceted, interrelated dimensions of settlement and integration.

    Sutherland, Stephen J. and Hany Ibrahim, “Refugees in Canada: From Persecution to Preparedness.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.292.

    Horizontal Movement

    Also referred to as lateral movement.

    A lateral or horizontal movement involves a change to another department or functional area, often in the same company, without necessary undergoing a change in status or salary. Lateral moves are fast becoming a way of demonstrating adaptive abilities and broadening skills, learning about other areas of the organization, and developing new talents.

    Boyd, Sandra and Kim Spurgeon, “Lifelong Career Management.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.406.

    Muehlbauer, Don. “How Horizontal Movement, Not Climbing the Ladder, Can Help Your Career.” Career Attraction. Online: http://www.careerattraction.com/how-horizontal-movement-not-climbing-the-ladder-can-help-your-career/ (Retrieved on August 7, 2014)


    Human Capital

    Human capital is the collective skills, knowledge, or other intangible assets of individuals that can be used to create economic value for the individuals, their employers, or their community. Employees can invest in their human capital in the form of their knowledge, skills, capabilities, and experience within a given profession and/or organization.

    Caverley, Natasha, Seanna Quressette, Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani, “Emerging Trends.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.574.

    Caverley, Natasha, Suzanne Stewart and Blythe C. Shepard, “Through an Aboriginal Lens.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.326.


    Human Resources (HR)

    Human Resources (HR) is the department of a company or organization charged with finding, screening, recruiting and training job applicants, as well as the orientation and retention of new employees. Human Resource is also the organizational function that deals with issues related to people such as compensation, performance management, organization development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, communication, administration and training.

    Business Dictionary.com, “Human resources.” Online: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/human-resources.html (Retrieved on August 7, 2014)

    Investopedia, “Human Resources (HR).” Online: http://www.investopedia.com/terms/h/humanresources.asp (Retrieved on August 7, 2014)

    Neault, Roberta, “Theoretical Foundations of Career Development.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.147.

     

    I

    Informal Learning

    Informal Learning is the acquisition of skills and knowledge through such channels as independent study, volunteer activities, travelling and hobbies. It is often referred to as learning by experience or just as experience. This learning is not usually given recognition in the form of credentials from institutions. Informal learning is not organised, has no set objective in terms of learning outcomes and is not intentional from the learner’s standpoint.

    Canada Career Information Partnership. A Career Development Resource for Parents: Helping parents explore the role of coach and ally. 2006. Online: http://www.ccdf.ca/ccdf/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/a_career_development_resource_for_parents_e.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    OECD, Recognition of Non-formal and Informal Learning. Online: http://www.oecd.org/edu/skills-beyond-school/recognitionofnon-formalandinformallearning-home.htm (Retrieved on September 1, 2014)


    Information and Resource Management

    Information and Resource Management refers to developing, organizing, maintaining and disseminating information and resources related to work, learning and life-balance across the lifespan. The keys to effective information and resource management are the currency of the information and resources; the degree to which information and resources meet the needs of individuals and communities in which they are located; and the support services available which coach/assist individuals and communities to research, use and manage information in ways which support their needs and goals.

    Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners. Glossary of Career Development Terms. 2012. Online: http://career-dev-guidelines.org/career_dev/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Glossary-of-Terms-changes-from-CD-Chapter-re-counselling.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Informational Interview

    An informational Interview (informational conversation, information interview) is a brief meeting (generally one hour or less) arranged and led by a potential jobseeker in which he/she seeks to obtain insider information on a particular career or industry, on specific companies that he/she might want to work at, and other informations that cannot be obtained in print or online resources; while an employed professional learns about the jobseeker and judges their professional potential and fit to the corporate culture, so building their candidate pool for future hires. An informational interview is not a job interview – it can lead to a job offer, but this should not be expected from the jobseeker, and the interview should not be used to sell oneself. It is one of the most effective networking strategy for jobseekers and graduates. In an informational interview, the interviewer can be unemployed, or else employed and considering new options. The jobseeker is expected to lead the interview and have questions prepared beforehand.

    Idealist Careers, “Informational Interviews.” Online: http://idealistcareers.org/informational-interviews/ (Retrieved on September 2, 2014)

    Rosenberg McKay, Dawn. “The Informational Interview: Getting the Inside Scoop on an Occupation.” About.com. Online: http://careerplanning.about.com/cs/occupations/a/info_interviews.htm (Retrieved on August 7, 2014)

    Service Canada, “The Information Interview.” Online: https://www.jobsetc.gc.ca/pieces.jsp?category_id=420 (Retrieved on September 2, 2014)


    Intercultural Competence

    Intercultural competence refers to someone having understanding, knowledge, and comfort in interacting with other cultures. It involves adapting to cultural differences through increased intercultural sensitivity, an appreciation of multiple perspectives and the ability to behave appropriately and effectively in another cultural context.

    Sutherland, Stephen J. and Hany Ibrahim, “Refugees in Canada: From Persecution to Preparedness.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.292.

    Interests

    Interests are preferences for activities that are expressed as likes or dislikes. These could include activities, hobbies and subjects or topics. Some examples include: sports, music, art, and topics like science or fashion, etc.

    Canada Career Information Partnership. A Career Development Resource for Parents: Helping parents explore the role of coach and ally. 2006. Online: http://www.ccdf.ca/ccdf/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/a_career_development_resource_for_parents_e.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Landine, Jeffrey and John Stewart, “Assessment in Career Guidance.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.435.


    Internship

    An internship is a temporary professional working position that is typically offered to students or inexperienced workers. It is a project-oriented, supervised, on-the-job learning experience in which the intern has specific learning goals and gives the intern valuable work experience and gains first-hand experience about a particular industry or field of work. It may be paid or unpaid. Internships help inexperienced workers get involved in the workplace, and can sometimes lead to permanent positions.

    Canada Career Information Partnership. A Career Development Resource for Parents: Helping parents explore the role of coach and ally. 2006. Online: http://www.ccdf.ca/ccdf/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/a_career_development_resource_for_parents_e.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Canadian Intern Association: http://www.internassociation.ca/ (Retrieved on September 2, 2014)

    Government of Canada. Services for Youth. “Internships.” Online: http://www.youth.gc.ca/eng/topics/career_planning/internships.shtml (Retrieved on September 2, 2014)


    Inter-rater Discrepancy

    Inter-rater discrepancy is the degree of agreement among raters concerning the content validity of test or inventory items.

    Hiebert, Bryan and Kris Magnusson, “The Power of Evidence: Demonstrating the Value of Career Development Services.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.519.

    Inuit

    Inuit are Indigenous peoples that reside in the Arctic regions of Canada, Denmark, Russia, and the United States, from Bering Strait to East Greenland, a distance of over 6000 kilometres. In Arctic Canada, about 45,000 Inuit live in 53 communities in Nunatsiavut (Labrador), Nunavik (Northern Québec), Nunavut, and the Inuvialuit Settlement Region of the Northwest Territories. Each of these four Inuit groups has settled land claims. These Inuit regions cover one third of Canada’s land mass. Until recently, outsiders called the Inuit “Eskimo.” Now they prefer their own term, “Inuit,” meaning simply “people.”

    Arthur, Nancy and Sandra Collins, “Diversity and Social Justice.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.97.

    Inuulitsivik, “Who are the Inuits?” Online: http://www.inuulitsivik.ca/northern-life-and-inuit-culture/who-are-the-inuits (Retrieved on August 7, 2014)

    J

    Job

    A job is a paid or unpaid position requiring a group of specific attributes enabling a person to perform a configuration of tasks in an organization or a particular environment, part time or full time, for a short or long duration of time.

    Canada Career Information Partnership. A Career Development Resource for Parents: Helping parents explore the role of coach and ally. 2006. Online: http://www.ccdf.ca/ccdf/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/a_career_development_resource_for_parents_e.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners. Glossary of Career Development Terms. 2012. Online: http://career-dev-guidelines.org/career_dev/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Glossary-of-Terms-changes-from-CD-Chapter-re-counselling.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)


    Job Application

    A job application is an official online or hard copy information form a potential employer asks a potential jobseeker to fill out. This can happen before a first interview, after an offer is made, or at any time during the process. The job application provides a consistent format with the same questions that must be answered by each person who applies for an open position. The job application is a legally defensible listing of a job applicant’s employment history, educational background, degrees, qualifications, references, and more.

    Heathfield, Susan M. “Job application.” About.com Human Resources. Online: http://humanresources.about.com/od/glossaryj/g/job-application.htm (Retrieved on September 2, 2014)

    Work Coach Café. “Career Dictionary” Online: http://www.workcoachcafe.com/career-dictionary-definitions/ (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)


    Job Developer

    Also referred to as Employment Outreach Specialist.

    A job developer (or employment outreach specialist) is a human resources and marketing professional whose responsibility is to fill the gap between unemployed jobseekers and the work available in their communities. Found within social service agencies both in the private and public sectors, job developers are responsible for creating job opportunities for clients of their organization by researching, identifying and soliciting commitments from possible sources of employment. Additionally, they may provide clients with soft skills training.:

    Henderson, KJ. “What Is a Job Developer?” eHow. Online: http://www.ehow.com/about_5480711_job-developer.html (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Job Development

    Also referred to as work development.

    Job development (or work development) is the process of filling the gap between unemployed jobseekers on one hand, and the employment and volunteer opportunities that are available in their communities on the other hand. It can involve marketing clients to employers, informing them about what the clients can do, asking for job interviews and negotiating workplace agreements on the behalf of clients, and generally creating job opportunities by researching, identifying and soliciting commitments from possible sources of employment. The objectives of job development are long-term attachment to the labour market for workers, and employer satisfaction through providing them with workers who meet their needs and expectations.

    Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners. Glossary of Career Development Terms. 2012. Online: http://career-dev-guidelines.org/career_dev/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Glossary-of-Terms-changes-from-CD-Chapter-re-counselling.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Henderson, KJ. “What Is a Job Developer?” eHow. Online: http://www.ehow.com/about_5480711_job-developer.html (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)


    Job Searching

    Job searching, job seeking or job hunting, is the act of looking for employment, due to unemployment, discontent with a current position, or a desire for a better position.

    McKinnon, Kerri and Kathleen Johnston, “Career Planning, Knowledge, and Skills.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.194.

    Job Shadowing

    Job shadowing is a model of experiential learning and a career exploration activity that gives someone a first-hand look at a work environment within a chosen field. It offers the opportunity to spend time observing the day-to-day activities of a professional currently working in a person’s career field of interest, thus offering a chance to see what it’s actually like working in a specific job. A job shadow can extend from a simple hour-long visit with one person to an extended week-long stay allowing interaction with numerous staff and observation of a variety of activities. This activity can be integrated into curricular learning, but is not only for students: new or less experienced workers can also benefit from it.

    Canada Career Information Partnership. A Career Development Resource for Parents: Helping parents explore the role of coach and ally. 2006. Online: http://www.ccdf.ca/ccdf/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/a_career_development_resource_for_parents_e.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Keates, Cathy. “What Is Job Shadowing?” TalentEgg. Online: http://talentegg.ca/incubator/2011/02/03/what-is-job-shadowing/ (Retrieved on September 3, 2014)

    Loretto, Penny. “Exploring Careers through Job Shadowing.” About Careers. Online: http://internships.about.com/od/internships101/a/whatisjobshadowing.htm (Retrieved on September 3, 2014)

    Service Canada. “Job Shadowing.” Online: https://www.jobsetc.gc.ca/eng/categories.jsp?category_id=344&crumb=114&crumb=114&crumb=114&crumb=114 (Retrieved on September 3, 2014)

    K

    Knowledge Workers

    Knowledge workers are employees who are engaged primarily in acquisition, analysis, and manipulation of information as opposed to in production of goods or services. They have high degrees of expertise, education, or experience, and the primary purpose of their jobs involves the creation, distribution, or application of knowledge. The term was first used by Peter Drucker in 1959.

    Boyd, Sandra and Kim Spurgeon, “Lifelong Career Management.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.407.

    Business Dictionary.com, “Knowledge worker.” Online: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/knowledge-worker.html (Retrieved on August 7, 2014)

    Rouse, Margaret. “Knowledge worker.” TechTarget. Online: http://searchcrm.techtarget.com/definition/knowledge-worker (Retrieved on August 7, 2014)

    L

    Labour Market

    The labour market is the arena where those who are in need of labour and those who can supply the labour come together. It is where workers find paying work, employers find willing workers, and wage rates are determined. The market is in a constant state of flux, dependent on changing external influences.

    Labour markets may be local or national (even international) in their scope and are made up of smaller, interacting labour markets for different qualifications, skills, and geographical locations. They depend on exchange of information between employers and job seekers about wage rates, conditions of employment, level of competition, and job location.

    Business Dictionary.com. “Labor market.” Online: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/labor-market.html#ixzz39juua5QR (Retrieved on August 7, 2014)

    McKinnon, Kerri and Kathleen Johnston, “Career Planning, Knowledge, and Skills.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.194.


    Labour Market Information

    Labour market information covers the principal elements of the labour market and its operations. It includes, for example: data on employment, wages, standards and qualifications, job openings, working conditions. Information may be historical, current or projected; formally or informally collected; and based in skills, occupations or industries.

    The terms “career information,” “occupational information,” and “labour market information” overlap. Broadly defined, these terms encompass the full range of information about labour market conditions and trends, including employment and unemployment, industry and occupational employment and wages, labour market projections, individual workers or jobseekers, and providers of education and training. Also included is information about specific industries, occupations, and careers, such as qualifications, job duties, educational requirements, working conditions and work settings, compensation, employers, and current job vacancies.

    Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners. Glossary of Career Development Terms. 2012. Online: http://career-dev-guidelines.org/career_dev/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Glossary-of-Terms-changes-from-CD-Chapter-re-counselling.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Clearinghouse on Adult, Career and Vocational Education. Using Online Occupational Information for Career Development. Online: http://www.calpro-online.org/eric/docs/pfile04.htm (Retrieved on September 4, 2014)

    Ontario Council of Agencies Serving Immigrants (OCASI). “What is labour market information? Do I need it?” Settlement.org. Online: http://www.settlement.org/sys/faqs_detail.asp?faq_id=4001091 (Retrieved on September 3, 2014)


    Life Skills Coach

    A Life skills coach helps individuals to enhance personal and daily living skills in communications, human relations and problem-solving. They prepare learners to deal effectively with personal issues by guiding them through experiential learning activities such as self-discovery and behaviour identification exercises. They design and facilitate learning experiences aimed at maintaining and strengthening relationships and in addressing issues related to self, family, work, career, community and leisure.

    Alberta Learning Information Service (ALIS). “Life Skills Coach” (Occupational Profile). OCC Info. Online: http://occinfo.alis.alberta.ca/occinfopreview/info/browse-occupations/occupation-profile.html?id=71011097 (Retrieved on September 3, 2014)

    Canada Career Information Partnership. A Career Development Resource for Parents: Helping parents explore the role of coach and ally. 2006. Online: http://www.ccdf.ca/ccdf/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/a_career_development_resource_for_parents_e.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)


    Lifelong Learning

    Lifelong learning may be broadly defined as learning that is pursued throughout life: learning that is flexible, diverse and available at different times and in different places, through an interconnected web of different kinds of education and training that serve both life and work goals. Lifelong learning crosses sectors, promoting learning beyond traditional schooling and throughout adult life, after compulsory education is completed.

    Canada Career Information Partnership. A Career Development Resource for Parents: Helping parents explore the role of coach and ally. 2006. Online: http://www.ccdf.ca/ccdf/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/a_career_development_resource_for_parents_e.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Lifelong Learning Council Queensland. “What is lifelong learning?” Online: http://www.llcq.org.au/01_cms/details.asp?ID=12 (Retrieved on September 3, 2014)


    Life Transitions

    Life transitions is both a process and a stage that occurs throughout our lives and is associated with a discontinuity with the past (e.g., the transition from high school to work).

    Neault, Roberta, “Theoretical Foundations of Career Development.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.147.

    Living Wage

    Living wage is a level of hourly pay which enables someone working full time to have enough to meet their basic needs and build some savings for the future. It is not the same as the minimum wage, which is the legal minimum all employers must pay. This newer concept is based on the local cost of living and takes into account the actual costs of living in a specific community, with rent being the biggest single cost. The living wage is calculated as the hourly rate at which a household can meet its basic needs, once government transfers have been added to the family’s income and deductions have been subtracted.

    Hill, Stephen, “Employment Counselling and Poverty.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.243.

    Living Wage Canada, “What is a Living Wage?” Online: http://livingwagecanada.ca/index.php/about-living-wage/ (Retrieved on August 7, 2014)

    M

    Mattering Environment

    A mattering environment is a climate where the client feels acknowledged, respected, and valued. It encourages involvement and promotes the development of community.:

    Cooper, ‎ Diane L., Sue A. Saunders, ‎Roger B. Winston, Jr, Joan B. Hirt, Don G. Creamer, Steven M. Janosik. Learning Through Supervised Practice in Student Affairs. 2002. P. 125-6.

    Nelson, Sarah. Mattering and Vulnerability: A Phenomenological Study of Experiences Within the Community of Inquiry. Master’s thesis. Royal Roads University. Online: http://dspace.royalroads.ca/docs/bitstream/handle/10170/728/nelson_sarah.pdf?sequence=1 (Retrieved on August 7, 2014)

    Walters, Beverley, Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani, “Developing Effective Client Relationships.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.168.


    Mentoring

    Mentoring, in a career context, is a partnership between two people (mentor and mentee), normally working in a similar field or sharing similar experiences – for example, an experienced teacher might mentor a student teacher or beginning teacher. The mentor shares his/her knowledge and experience in an area with the person being mentored. A mentor is a guide who can help the mentee to find the right direction and who can help them to develop solutions to career issues. The mentorship relationship also helps the mentee becoming more self-aware and more self-confident. It is a helpful relationship based upon mutual trust and respect.

    Canada Career Information Partnership. A Career Development Resource for Parents: Helping parents explore the role of coach and ally. 2006. Online: http://www.ccdf.ca/ccdf/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/a_career_development_resource_for_parents_e.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    MentorSET. “What is Mentoring?” Online: http://www.mentorset.org.uk/pages/mentoring.htm (Retrieved on September 3, 2014)

    MindTools. “Mentoring: A Mutually Beneficial Partnership.” Online: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newCDV_72.htm (Retrieved on September 3, 2014)


    Métis

    Métis are Aboriginal people who can trace their parentage to First Nations and European descent. Métis means a person who self-identifies as Métis, is of historic Métis Nation Ancestry, is distinct from other Aboriginal peoples, and is accepted by the Métis Nation. According to the 2006 Census, almost 400,000 people reported they were Métis with almost 90% located in the western provinces and Ontario.

    Arthur, Nancy and Sandra Collins, “Diversity and Social Justice.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.97.

    Métis National Council, “The Métis Nation.” Online: http://www.metisnation.ca/index.php/who-are-the-metis (Retrieved on August 7, 2014)


    Migrant Personality

    Migrant personality refers to specific traits, values, and a set of motives that characterize the personality of people who desire to immigrate versus people who are willing to stay in their native country. Those who want to resettle in another country tend to be more work-oriented and have higher achievement and power motivation but lower affiliation motivation and family centrality.

    Boneva, Bonka S. and Irene Hanson Frieze. “Toward a Concept of a Migrant Personality.” Journal of Social Issues, Volume 57, Issue 3, pages 477–491, Fall 2001. Online: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/0022-4537.00224/abstract (Retrieved on August 7, 2014)

    Bylsma, Lisa and Sophie C. Yohani, “Immigrants in Canada.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.269.


    Minimum Wage

    Minimum wage is a provincially imposed lower limit on wage rates. It is the lowest hourly, daily or monthly remuneration that employers may legally pay to workers. Most employees are eligible for minimum wage, whether they are full-time, part-time, casual employees, or are paid an hourly rate, commission, piece rate, flat rate or salary. However, there are jobs that are exempt from the minimum wage provisions.

    Government of Ontario, Ministry of Labour. “Minimum Wage.” Online: http://www.labour.gov.on.ca/english/es/pubs/guide/minwage.php (Retrieved on August 7, 2014)

    Hill, Stephen, “Employment Counselling and Poverty.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.244.


    Model

    A model symbolically represents a set of concepts or ideas which is created to depict relationships. Models are useful in showing the process or steps involved with working with clients.

    Neault, Roberta, “Theoretical Foundations of Career Development.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.147.
    N

    National Occupational Classification (NOC)

    The National Occupational Classification (NOC) is a national, standardized reference on occupations in Canada. Over 30,000 job titles have been organized into 520 occupational group descriptions that can be used for defining and collecting statistics, managing information databases, analyzing labour market trends and extracting practical career-planning information. Also, it provides statisticians, labour market analysts, career counsellors, employers and individual job seekers a consistent way to collect data that describes and understands the nature of work. The NOC is updated according to five-year Census cycles, reflecting the evolution of the Canadian labour market.

    Government of Canada. National Occupational Classification. Online: http://www5.hrsdc.gc.ca/NOC/ (Retrieved on August 7, 2014)

    Neault, Roberta, “Theoretical Foundations of Career Development.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.147.


    Networking

    Networking is a process in which the client develops long-term relationships with others for mutual benefit. In a larger sense, networking (including social networking) can include almost anything we do or say to someone who might be able to help us in our career, or who might know someone who can. This includes connecting to online communities or professional networks as well as to people we find through our existing connections and even articles we read in the newspaper or online.

    Pickerell, Deirdre A., “Work Search Strategies.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.215.

    Non-standard Work

    Non-standard work (non-standard employment) broadens the consideration of workers looking to pursue work alternatives. Part-time, contract and temporary work are common examples of non-standard work. Other examples include home telecommuting, satellite office telecommuting and “own-account” self-employment, which is the selling of goods or services by people who do not employ workers themselves. In addition to regular or permanent full-time and part-time employees, organizations can have a mix of employment arrangements for fixed-term employees, independent contractors, temporary project staff, interns and co-op students.

    Non-standard work has advantages and disadvantages from the perspectives of both employers and employees. Employers gain flexibility, access to specialized talent and cost savings by engaging contingent workers. On the downside, they lose out on the engagement and loyalty that come with a long-term attachment. Employees can have more flexibility and they can make more money (particularly as independent contractors), but they lose economic stability.

    Canada Career Information Partnership. A Career Development Resource for Parents: Helping parents explore the role of coach and ally. 2006. Online: http://www.ccdf.ca/ccdf/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/a_career_development_resource_for_parents_e.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    HR Council for the Nonprofit Sector. “Getting the Right People: Non-standard Employment Relationships.” hronline.ca. Online: http://hrcouncil.ca/hr-toolkit/right-people-nonstandard.cfm (Retrieved on September 4, 2014)

    O

    Occupation

    An occupation is a group of similar jobs or types of work sharing similar skills, education, knowledge, and training, and found in different industries or organizations.

    Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners. Glossary of Career Development Terms. 2012. Online: http://career-dev-guidelines.org/career_dev/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Glossary-of-Terms-changes-from-CD-Chapter-re-counselling.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Occupational information

    Occupational information applies labour market data to specific occupations or occupational groups. It includes categorization of occupations into groups, description of duties, skill levels, aptitudes, interests, physical activities, environmental conditions, educational/training requirements, data and statistics on wages, job openings, industry employers, all in relation to the work roles in demand in the labour market. Current and accurate occupational information is a crucial component of successful career decision-making.

    The terms “career information,” “occupational information,” and “labour market information” overlap. Broadly defined, these terms encompass the full range of information about labour market conditions and trends, including employment and unemployment, industry and occupational employment and wages, labour market projections, individual workers or jobseekers, and providers of education and training. Also included is information about specific industries, occupations, and careers, such as qualifications, job duties, educational requirements, working conditions and work settings, compensation, employers, and current job vacancies.

    Alberta Learning Information Service. “Occupational Information.” Online: https://alis.alberta.ca/alis/educators-counsellors/occupational-information.aspx (Retrieved on September 4, 2014)

    Canada Career Information Partnership. A Career Development Resource for Parents: Helping parents explore the role of coach and ally. 2006. Online: http://www.ccdf.ca/ccdf/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/a_career_development_resource_for_parents_e.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Clearinghouse on Adult, Career and Vocational Education. Using Online Occupational Information for Career Development. Online: http://www.calpro-online.org/eric/docs/pfile04.htm (Retrieved on September 4, 2014)


    On-the-job Training

    Also referred to as workplace training.

    On-the-job training (or workplace training) refers to human resource development or ongoing training for workers on the job. It includes ongoing staff development in business and can cover everything from literacy training to management training. There are several methods of providing on-the-job training; four frequently used methods are coaching, mentoring, job shadowing and job rotation.

    Business Case Studies. Business expansion through training and development: An Aldi case study. Online: http://businesscasestudies.co.uk/aldi/business-expansion-through-training-and-development/on-the-job-training.html#axzz3CN2T8pRP (Retrieved on September 4, 2014)

    Canada Career Information Partnership. A Career Development Resource for Parents: Helping parents explore the role of coach and ally. 2006. Online: http://www.ccdf.ca/ccdf/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/a_career_development_resource_for_parents_e.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)


    One-stop Employment Services

    One-stop employment services provide comprehensive services to job seekers through service centres, in person, and online. The centre obtains appropriate information from job seekers, including resources and services needed to meet their identified needs, and offers an array of services for job search, assessment, workplace counselling, and much else.

    BC Centre for Employment Excellence. One-Stop Employment Services Centre Model – Introduction. April 2, 2013. Online: http://www.cfeebc.org/resource/one-stop-employment-services-model-introduction/ (Retrieved on September 4, 2014)

    Caverley, Natasha, Seanna Quressette, Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani, “Emerging Trends.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.574.


    Open Question

    An open question is a question that is likely to receive a long answer – although any question can receive a long answer, open questions deliberately seek longer answers, and are the opposite of closed questions. These types of questions ask the respondent to think and reflect, to give opinions and feelings, and they hand control of the conversation to the respondent. Also referred to as an open-ended question.

    ChangingMinds.com, “Open and Closed Questions.” Online: http://changingminds.org/techniques/questioning/open_closed_questions.htm (Retrieved on August 7, 2014)

    Walters, Beverley, Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani, “Developing Effective Client Relationships.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.168.


    Outcome-focused Intervention

    Outcome-focused intervention is based on results that have had demonstrable indicators of success or outcomes.

    Hiebert, Bryan and Kris Magnusson, “The Power of Evidence: Demonstrating the Value of Career Development Services.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.519.

    Outplacement

    Outplacement provides assistance to employees who were laid off or terminated in finding new employment. This service is delivered by a third party. It is usually paid for by the former employer.

    Business Dictionary.com, “Outplacement.” Online: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/outplacement.html (Retrieved on August 4, 2014)

     

    P

    Part-time Work

    Part-time work hours, in Canada, includes employed persons who usually worked less than 30 hours per week, at their main or only job.

    Statistics Canada, “Classification of Full-time and Part-Time Work Hours.” Online: http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb/p3VD.pl?Function=getVD&TVD=114437 (Retrieved on August 7, 2014)

    Personal Agency

    Personal agency refers to people’s beliefs about the extent to which they are active agents in their own life events, in contrast to being passive recipients of the events one experiences.

    Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners. Glossary of Career Development Terms. 2012. Online: http://career-dev-guidelines.org/career_dev/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Glossary-of-Terms-changes-from-CD-Chapter-re-counselling.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Personality

    Personality refers to an individual’s combination of personal, social and emotional traits, motivations, needs, drives, attitude and approach to activities and outlook. There are many different personality types, and it can be difficult to classify a person into a single type as there are many different personality traits one can possess.

    Canada Career Information Partnership. A Career Development Resource for Parents: Helping parents explore the role of coach and ally. 2006. Online: http://www.ccdf.ca/ccdf/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/a_career_development_resource_for_parents_e.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Landine, Jeffrey and John Stewart, “Assessment in Career Guidance.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.435.

    Your Dictionary, “Examples of Personality Traits.” Online: http://examples.yourdictionary.com/examples-of-personality-traits.html (Retrieved on August 7, 2014)


    Personality Traits

    Personality traits are relatively enduring patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviours that distinguish individuals from one another. Combined together, they form a person’s personality.

    Landine, Jeffrey and John Stewart, “Assessment in Career Guidance.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.435.

    Your Dictionary, “Examples of Personality Traits.” Online: http://examples.yourdictionary.com/examples-of-personality-traits.html (Retrieved on August 7, 2014)


    Persons with Disabilities

    Persons with disabilities refers to persons who identify themselves as experiencing difficulties in carrying out the activities of daily living or experience disadvantage in employment, and who may require some accommodation, because of a long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments which, in interaction with various barriers, may hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others.

    Arthur, Nancy and Sandra Collins, “Diversity and Social Justice.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.98.

    Placement

    Placement is the act of connecting clients to employment opportunities matching their abilities. Personnel offices interview and test applicants for the purpose of achieving suitable job placements where there is a good match between management needs and employee qualifications. This can lead to part-time, summer, or full-time opportunities. It can be done as part of a job preparation program or service.

    AllBusiness, “Job Placement” in Business Glossary. Online: http://www.allbusiness.com/glossaries/job-placement/4942849-1.html (Retrieved on August 8, 2014)

    Browne, Jennifer and Lisa Russell, “The Practice of Postsecondary Career Development.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.378.


    Portfolio careers

    Portfolio careers are a non-traditional approach to jobs, the job market, and career management. Portfolio careers are usually built around a collection of skills and interests, though the only consistent theme is one of career self-management. With a portfolio career you no longer have one job, one employer, but multiple jobs and employers within one or more professions.

    The term “portfolio career” is attributed to the British management expert Charles Handy who predicted that the model of having a full-time job working for one employer would not endure. Instead, he envisioned a model in which an individual works for multiple employers, sometimes simultaneously, performing a series of short-term assignments. In this new model, everyone would be self-employed and responsible for planning and managing his/her own career.

    Boyd, Sandra and Kim Spurgeon, “Lifelong Career Management.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.407.

    Hansen, Randall S. “Portfolio Careers: Creating a Career of Multiple Part-Time Jobs.” Quintessential Careers. Online: http://www.quintcareers.com/portfolio_careers.html (Retrieved on August 8, 2014)


    Post-pre Assessment

    Post-pre assessment is a retrospective approach to measuring client change. Participants are asked to use their current frame of reference to create a common measuring stick for assessing their competence before and after a workshop. For example, participants in a workshop on how to understand and use labour market information might be asked: “Knowing what you know now about using labour market information for career decision making or job search, rate yourself before the workshop and rate yourself now.”

    Hiebert, Bryan and Kris Magnusson, “The Power of Evidence: Demonstrating the Value of Career Development Services.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.519.

    Power Motivation

    Power motivation is the drive to influence people and change situations. Power motivated people wish to create an impact on their organization and are willing to take risks to do so.

    Bylsma, Lisa and Sophie C. Yohani, “Immigrants in Canada.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.270.

    Prior Learning Assessment

    Prior learning assessment is a systematic process that encompasses what a person knows and can do. It involves the identification, documentation, assessment and recognition of competencies (knowledge, skills and attitudes) that have been developed through many formal and informal means (e.g., work experience, training, independent study, volunteer activities, travelling and hobbies). The recognition can be used toward the requirements of an academic or training program, occupational certification or labour market entry.

    Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners. Glossary of Career Development Terms. 2012. Online: http://career-dev-guidelines.org/career_dev/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Glossary-of-Terms-changes-from-CD-Chapter-re-counselling.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Sutherland, Stephen J. and Hany Ibrahim, “Refugees in Canada: From Persecution to Preparedness.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.293.


    Productivity

    Productivity is a measure of how efficiently goods and services are produced. It is usually expressed as output per unit of input. Productivity is a critical determinant of cost efficiency.

    Business Dictionary.com, “Productivity.” Online: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/productivity.html (Retrieved on August 8, 2014)

    Investopedia, “Productivity.” Online: http://www.investopedia.com/terms/p/productivity.asp (Retrieved on August 8, 2014)

    Jarvis, Phil, “Career Development.” In In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.71.


    Profession

    Profession is an occupation requiring specialized knowledge and advanced training, including instruction in skills and methods as well as the scientific, historical, or scholarly principles underlying such skills and methods. A profession is a group of people in a learned occupation, the members of which agree to abide by specified rules of conduct when practising the profession.

    Canada Career Information Partnership. A Career Development Resource for Parents: Helping parents explore the role of coach and ally. 2006. Online: http://www.ccdf.ca/ccdf/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/a_career_development_resource_for_parents_e.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Peruniak, Geoffrey S., “Professional Ethics, Role, and the Whole Person.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.124.


    Pull Factors / Push Factors

    Pull factors and push factors refer to the motives to migrate. Push factors are those associated with the area of origin, while pull factors are those that are associated with the area of destination.

    Motives for migration are often economic, and pull factors tend to be higher wages and greater demand for labour in the area of destination. Pull factors also include better living conditions, political and/or religious freedom, better medical care, security, and other advantages.

    Push factors include overpopulation, the absence of economic opportunity, not enough jobs, famine/drought, loss of wealth, poor medical care, intolerance towards a certain cultural group and other unfavourable conditions. Social and physical reasons (such as, respectively, persecution and natural disasters) tend to involve forced migration.

    Bylsma, Lisa and Sophie C. Yohani, “Immigrants in Canada.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.271.

    Levin Institute – The State University of New York. “Pull Factors in Migration.” Globalization 101. Online: http://www.globalization101.org/pull-factors/ (Retrieved on September 4, 2014)

    Riley, Chris. “Study Note – Push and Pull Factors behind Migration.” tutor2u, September 08, 2011. Online: http://www.tutor2u.net/blog/index.php/geography/comments/study-note-push-and-pull-factors-behind-migration (Retrieved on September 4, 2014)

    Rosenberg, Matt. “Push-Pull Factors.” About Education. Online: http://geography.about.com/od/geographyglossaryp/g/ggpushpull.htm (Retrieved on September 4, 2014)

    Q

    Quality of Life

    Quality of life is the general well-being of individuals and societies. It can be applied to a broad range of contexts, but on the individual level, it refers to individuals’ perceptions of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards, and concerns. It is a broad ranging and subjective concept affected in a complex way by the person’s physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, personal beliefs, and their relationship to salient features of their environment.

    Factors that play a role in quality of life vary according to personal preferences, but they often include financial security, job satisfaction, family life, health and safety.

    Quality of life should not be confused with the concept of standard of living, which is based primarily on income.

    Gregory, Derek, Ron Johnston, Geraldine Pratt, Michael Watts, Sarah Whatmore, eds. (2009). “Quality of Life”. Dictionary of Human Geography (5th ed.). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

    Investopedia, “Quality Of Life.” Online: http://www.investopedia.com/terms/q/quality-of-life.asp (Retrieved on August 8, 2014)

    Neault, Roberta, “Theoretical Foundations of Career Development.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.148.

    R

    Racial Discrimination

    Racial discrimination is discriminatory behaviour towards another based on race, ancestry, ethnicity, etc. It includes any action, intentional or not, that has the effect of singling out persons based on these factors, and imposing burdens on them and not on others, or withholding or limiting access to benefits available to other members of society.

    Racial discrimination can happen on a systemic level, from everyday rules and structures that are not consciously intended or designed to discriminate. Patterns of behaviour, policies or practices that are part of the structures of an organization or an entire sector can disadvantage or fail to reverse the ongoing impact and legacy of historical disadvantage of racialized persons. This means that even without malicious intent, the “normal way of doing things” might be having a negative impact on racialized persons.

    Ontario Human Rights Commission, Racial discrimination (brochure). Online: http://www.ohrc.on.ca/en/racial-discrimination-brochure (Retrieved on August 8, 2014)

    Sutherland, Stephen J. and Hany Ibrahim, “Refugees in Canada: From Persecution to Preparedness.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.293.


    Recession

    Recession is a decline in activity across the economy lasting longer than a few months. It is visible in industrial production, employment, real income, and wholesale-retail trade. The technical indicator of a recession is two consecutive quarters of negative economic growth as measured by a country’s gross domestic product (GDP). A recession is typically accompanied by an increase in unemployment. It is generally considered less severe than a depression, and if a recession continues long enough it is often then classified as a depression.

    Investor Words, “Recession.” Online: http://www.investorwords.com/4086/recession.html (Retrieved on August 8, 2014)

    Jarvis, Phil, “Career Development.” In In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.71.


    Recruiter

    Recruiters are people hired by employers to find the best candidates for the employers’ job openings. There are two primary types of recruiters: Internal recruiters who are members of employer staffs (typically in Human Resources), and external recruiters who typically work for a third party, like a staffing agency.

    About Money. “Working With Recruiters.” Online: http://humanresources.about.com/cs/recruiting/a/recruiters.htm (Retrieved on September 4, 2014)

    Work Coach Café. “Career Dictionary” Online: http://www.workcoachcafe.com/career-dictionary-definitions/ (Retrieved on August 8, 2014)


    Recruitment

    Also referred to as hiring.

    Recruitment refers to the overall process of attracting, selecting and appointing suitable candidates (from within or outside of the organization) to one or more jobs within an organisation, either permanent or temporary. The term may sometimes be defined as incorporating activities which take place ahead of attracting people, such as defining the job requirements and person specification, as well as after the individual has joined the organisation, such as induction and onboarding. Recruitment can also refer to processes involved in choosing individuals for unpaid positions, such as voluntary roles or training programmes.

    Business Dictionary.com, “Recruitment.” Online: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/recruitment.html (Retrieved on August 8, 2014)

    Doyle, Alison. “What is Recruitment?” About Careers. Online: http://jobsearch.about.com/od/recruiting/qt/what-is-recruitment.htm (Retrieved on September 4, 2014)

    Friend, Lucy. “What is Recruitment, Selection & Induction?” Houston Chronicle – Small Business. Online: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/recruitment-selection-induction-1154.html (Retrieved on September 4, 2014)


    Red Seal

    Red Seal is a standard of excellence adopted for the Interprovincial Standards Program to signify interprovincial qualification of tradespersons at the journeyperson level. It is a passport that allows the holder to work anywhere in Canada without having to write further examinations. It is obtained by completing an interprovincial exam.

    Canada Career Information Partnership. A Career Development Resource for Parents: Helping parents explore the role of coach and ally. 2006. Online: http://www.ccdf.ca/ccdf/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/a_career_development_resource_for_parents_e.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Canadian Apprenticeship Forum and Skills Canada. “What’s an Apprenticeship?” Careers in Trades. Online: http://www.careersintrades.ca/index.php?page=what-is-an-apprenticeship&hl=en_CA (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)


    Reflective Practice

    Reflective practices are methods and techniques that help individuals and groups reflect on their experiences and actions in order to engage in a process of continuous learning. Reflective practice enables the practitioner to become aware of the patterns of thoughts and behaviours that shape their thinking and action. Reflective practices nurture self-awareness, imagination and creativity, as well as systemic, non-linear modes of thinking and analysis.

    Self-reflective career practitioners engage in active reflection to ensure their continuous development that in turn supports the growth, development, and learning of clients. Through reflexive practice, they can better understand their own intentions, values and visions and support them to work in a challenging field where ethics and morals may be tested, where power relations may be decidedly unequal, and where they may be working in emotionally and physically demanding environments.

    Institute of Development Studies. “Reflective Practice .” Participatory Methods. Online: http://www.participatorymethods.org/method/reflective-practice (Retrieved on September 4, 2014)

    Peruniak, Geoffrey S., “Professional Ethics, Role, and the Whole Person.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.124.

    SkillsYouNeed.com. “What is Reflective Practice?” Online: http://www.skillsyouneed.com/ps/reflective-practice.html (Retrieved on September 4, 2014)


    Resume

    A resume is a written compilation used by jobseekers for self-marketing. It usually includes work experience, education, and skills. Common types are chronological, functional, or combination.

    Business Dictionary.com, “Resume.” Online: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/resume.html (Retrieved on August 8, 2014)

    Doyle, Alison. “What is a Resume?” About.com. Online: http://jobsearch.about.com/od/jobsearchglossary/g/resume1.htm (Retrieved on August 8, 2014)


    Role Models

    Role models are people whose behavior, example, or success is or can be emulated by others, especially by younger people, either in the present or in the future. A role model may be someone you know and interact with on a regular basis, or someone you have never met, such as a celebrity.

    Dictionary.com, “Role model”. Online: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/role+model (Retrieved on August 8, 2014)

    Shepard, Blythe C. and Priya S. Mani, “Career Development for Students.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.356.

     

    S

    Sector

    Sector is a term that may be used to describe a grouping of industries or a grouping of occupations. Skill sets that are common within a sector support career mobility.

    Canada Career Information Partnership. A Career Development Resource for Parents: Helping parents explore the role of coach and ally. 2006. Online: http://www.ccdf.ca/ccdf/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/a_career_development_resource_for_parents_e.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Sector Councils

    Sector councils are industry-led partnership organizations that bring together representatives from business, labour, education and other professional groups to study human resource challenges, identify solutions and implement solutions in key sectors of the economy.

    Canada Career Information Partnership. A Career Development Resource for Parents: Helping parents explore the role of coach and ally. 2006. Online: http://www.ccdf.ca/ccdf/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/a_career_development_resource_for_parents_e.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Self-assessment

    Self-assessment is the process of evaluating one’s abilities, skills, values, interests and personality traits. It is the first step in the career planning process. There are a variety of tools and tests that can be used to gather information about oneself, but the self-assessment process isn’t necessarily based on formal testing. The purpose of this process is to find occupations that are a good fit for the individual.

    Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners. Glossary of Career Development Terms. 2012. Online: http://career-dev-guidelines.org/career_dev/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Glossary-of-Terms-changes-from-CD-Chapter-re-counselling.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Rosenberg McKay, Dawn. “An Overview of  Self-Assessment in Career Planning.” About Careers. Online: http://careerplanning.about.com/cs/aboutassessment/a/assess_overview.htm (Retrieved on September 4, 2014)


    Service Learning

    Service learning integrates community services activities with learning. Curricular service learning is to have community service as part of the course. Students apply the lessons of the classroom to the service activity, and bring back to the classroom reflection and experience. Co-curricular service learning is done in conjunction with a club or organization that often exist to bring positive change in the community and is separate from a classroom.

    Browne, Jennifer and Lisa Russell, “The Practice of Postsecondary Career Development.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.378.

    Knapp, Timothy D.; Bradley J. Fisher (2010). “The Effectiveness of Service-Learning: It’s not always what you think”. Journal of Experiential Education 3 (33): p. 208–224.


    Shared Control

    Shared control refers to the co-operative approach in the client-practitioner relationship. The practitioner considers the client as the expert on his or her life and as the practitioner’s teacher. There is a sharing of time and space in the session, with the practitioner listening more than talking in the initial stages.

    Walters, Beverley, Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani, “Developing Effective Client Relationships.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.168.

    Skill Segmentation

    Skill segmentation refers to dual labour markets, which consist of various sub-groups with little or no crossover capability. The labour markets are divided into the primary and secondary sectors. The primary sector generally contains the higher grade, higher status, and better paid jobs that require specific skills, with employers who offer the best terms and conditions. The secondary sector is characterized jobs which are mostly low-skilled and require relatively little training. There are few barriers to job mobility within the secondary sector.

    McKinnon, Kerri and Kathleen Johnston, “Career Planning, Knowledge, and Skills.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.194.

    Social Assistance

    Also referred to as welfare assistance or income assistance.

    Social assistance is also known as “income support,” “income assistance,” and “welfare assistance.” These programs are intended to alleviate extreme poverty by providing a monthly payment to people with little or no income or people with disabilities.

    Government of Ontario, Ministry of Community and Social Services. “About social assistance in Ontario.” Online: http://www.mcss.gov.on.ca/en/mcss/programs/social/ (Retrieved on August 8, 2014)

    Hill, Stephen, “Employment Counselling and Poverty.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.244.


    Social Justice

    Social justice refers to the fair and equitable distribution of resources and opportunities; the direct action to ameliorate oppression and marginalization within society; and the full inclusion and participation of all members of society in a way that enables them to reach their potential. It implies fairness and mutual obligation in society: that we are responsible for one another, and that we should ensure that all have equal chances to succeed in life.

    Arthur, Nancy and Sandra Collins, “Diversity and Social Justice.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.98.

    RSA Action and Research Centre, “What Social Justice means.” Online: http://www.thersa.org/action-research-centre/learning,-cognition-and-creativity/education/social-justice/what-social-justice-means (Retrieved on August 8, 2014)


    Social Media

    Social media encompasses websites and all other online communications channels that are used by large groups of people for community-based input, interaction, content-sharing and collaboration, and to develop social and professional contacts.

    Dictionary.com, “Social Media.” Online: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/social+media (Retrieved on August 8, 2014)

    Mashable. “Social Networking” Online: http://mashable.com/category/social-networking/ (Retrieved on May 29, 2014)

    Rouse, Margaret. “Social Media.” WhatIs.com. Online: http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/social-media (Retrieved on August 8, 2014)


    Social Networking

    A social networking service is an online service, platform, or site that focuses on facilitating the building of social networks or social relations among people who, for example, share interests, activities, backgrounds, or real-life connections. A social networking service consists of a representation of each user (often a profile), his/her social links, and a variety of additional services. Most social network services are web-based and provide means for users to interact over the Internet, such as email and instant messaging. Social networking sites allow users to share ideas, activities, events, and interests within their individual networks.

    Mashable. “Social Networking” Online: http://mashable.com/category/social-networking/ (Retrieved on May 29, 2014)

    Rouse, Margaret. “Social Media.” WhatIs.com. Online: http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/social-media (Retrieved on August 8, 2014)


    Sociocultural Heritage

    Sociocultural heritage includes one’s race, gender, and social class, encompassing both social and cultural values and practices over many generations. It includes the habits, attitudes, values, and ideas that you learned growing up. Sociocultural heritage is passed from generation to generation by parents, religion, education, friends, books, radio, television, and movies, among others.

    Peruniak, Geoffrey S., “Professional Ethics, Role, and the Whole Person.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.124.

    Your Dictionary, “Sociocultural.” Online: http://www.yourdictionary.com/sociocultural (Retrieved on August 8, 2014)


    Soft Skills

    Soft skills are largely intangible, hard to quantify and represent personality traits and interpersonal skills. Examples include organizational skills, reliability, etiquette, getting along with others, communication skills, etc.

    Boyd, Sandra and Kim Spurgeon, “Lifelong Career Management.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.407.

    Investopedia, “Hard Skills.” Online: http://www.investopedia.com/terms/h/hard-skills.asp (Retrieved on August 8, 2014)


    Stretch Assignment

    Stretch assignment is a task or project given to employees which is beyond their current knowledge or skills level in order to “stretch” employees developmentally. It goes beyond the job description, challenges the employee’s current skills, and requires them to learn one or more new skills. It places the employees into uncomfortable situations in order to learn and grow.

    Boyd, Sandra and Kim Spurgeon, “Lifelong Career Management.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.407.

    Structural Unemployment

    Structural unemployment is caused by fundamental shifts in an economy resulting in industries (or segments of industries) going through changes so major that the jobs they sustained either disappear or require new skills. Structural unemployment occurs for a number of reasons – workers may lack the requisite job skills, or they may live far from regions where jobs are available but are unable to move there. Or they may simply be unwilling to work because existing wage levels are too low. So while jobs are available, there is a serious mismatch between what companies need and what workers can offer. Structural unemployment is exacerbated by extraneous factors such as technology, competition and government policy, and is independent from the business cycle – it can create a higher unemployment rate even after a recession is over.

    Amadeo, Kimberly. “Structural Unemployment.” About News. Online: http://useconomy.about.com/od/suppl1/g/Structural-Unemployment.htm (Retrieved on August 8, 2014)

    Investopedia, “Structural Unemployment.” Online: http://www.investopedia.com/terms/s/structuralunemployment.asp (Retrieved on August 8, 2014)


    Skills

    Skills are abilities and aptitudes, what a person is good at. They can be learnt or developed. Some examples of skills include typing, planning, organizing, communicating, etc. Skills are learned through a variety of methods: school, work, volunteering, sports, hobbies, peers and experience. In a career context, skills are the aptitudes needed to perform certain tasks. Work skills (or job skills) are the competencies you need to perform tasks the job requires.

    Canada Career Information Partnership. A Career Development Resource for Parents: Helping parents explore the role of coach and ally. 2006. Online: http://www.ccdf.ca/ccdf/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/a_career_development_resource_for_parents_e.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    The Career Key. “What are Skills?” Online: http://www.careerkey.org/identify-your-skills/what-are-skills.html#.VAjCdGNnb5E (Retrieved on September 4, 2014)


    Succession Planning

    Succession planning is an organizational planning process that ensures continuity of leadership and core staff skills by identifying, developing and replacing key people (in mission-critical positions) over time. It involves making sure that employees are recruited and developed to fill each key role within the company, that they develop their knowledge, skills, and abilities, and are prepared for advancement or promotion into ever more challenging roles.

    Heathfield, Susan M. “Succession Planning.” About.com. Online: http://humanresources.about.com/od/glossarys/g/successionplan.htm (Retrieved on August 8, 2014)

    Caverley, Natasha, Suzanne Stewart and Blythe C. Shepard, “Through an Aboriginal Lens.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.327.

     

    T

    Transferable Skills

    Transferable skills are skills that have been used before in other jobs and that can be used once in a new job.

    Transferable skills are the talents a person gathers throughout their career and through other real life experiences which can be applied to a new job or new career. These talents might seem insignificant when a person is looking for new employment, however they’re often just what an employer is looking for when they’re hoping to hire a new employee. Transferable skills include the interpersonal, communication, and organizational skills a person obtained while working previous jobs, undertaking volunteer work, playing a team sport or completing a university degree.

    Government of Canada, Services for Youth. “Skills inventory.” Online: http://www.youth.gc.ca/eng/media/skills_inventory.shtml (Retrieved on September 4, 2014)

    Rosenberg McKay, Dawn. “Examples of Transferable Skills: A Short List of Skills You Can Use in Multiple Jobs.” About Careers. Online: http://careerplanning.about.com/od/careerchoicechan/a/trans_skills_ex.htm (Retrieved on September 4, 2014)

    Work Coach Café. “Career Dictionary” Online: http://www.workcoachcafe.com/career-dictionary-definitions/ (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)


    Trend

    A trend is a long-term change in social, economic, demographic, technological, educational or organizational direction, broad in scope and identified by many sources. Trends have a traceable history. Trends change known conditions.

    Canada Career Information Partnership. A Career Development Resource for Parents: Helping parents explore the role of coach and ally. 2006. Online: http://www.ccdf.ca/ccdf/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/a_career_development_resource_for_parents_e.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)
    U

    Underemployment

    Underemployment refers to being employed, but not in the desired capacity, i.e. at work that does not permit full use of one’s skills and abilities. This could mean working fewer hours than desired, doing jobs that require less skill or experience, being underpaid and working less intensively than able or willing to work. While not technically unemployed, the underemployed are often competing for available jobs.

    Bylsma, Lisa and Sophie C. Yohani, “Immigrants in Canada.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.271.

    Investor Words, “Underemployment.” Online: http://www.investorwords.com/5835/underemployment.html (Retrieved on August 8, 2014)

    V

    Validation

    Validation is similar to mattering. The practitioner ensures that clients feel that they are important to the process and that their experiences, thoughts, and feelings are valued by the practitioner.

    Walters, Beverley, Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani, “Developing Effective Client Relationships.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.169.

    Value Proposition

    Value proposition is a business or marketing statement that summarizes why a consumer should buy a product or use a service. This statement should convince a potential consumer that one particular product or service will add more value or better solve a problem than other similar offerings. In the context of the job search, it is the unique, consistent, and compelling message jobseekers use to effectively market and sell themselves to the employer.

    Graham, Sharon. “Articulating a Powerful Value Proposition.” Career Professionals of Canada Blog. Online: http://careerprocanada.ca/articulating-value-proposition/ (Retrieved on August 8, 2014)

    Boyd, Sandra and Kim Spurgeon, “Lifelong Career Management.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.407.


    Values

    Values are a broad range of beliefs or principles that are meaningful to a particular group or individual. They are subjective and based on inner personal experience and occur at cultural and organizational levels. They are fundamental beliefs that drive the decision-making process and are key when making a choice about careers. For example some people value job security, structure, and a regular schedule. Others value independence. Work values, such as helping society, influencing people, and working alone are essential to consider in career planning. When expressed in the work setting, work takes on purpose and meaning.

    Canada Career Information Partnership. A Career Development Resource for Parents: Helping parents explore the role of coach and ally. 2006. Online: http://www.ccdf.ca/ccdf/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/a_career_development_resource_for_parents_e.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Peruniak, Geoffrey S., “Professional Ethics, Role, and the Whole Person.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.125.

    Sutherland, Stephen J. and Hany Ibrahim, “Refugees in Canada.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.435.


    Vocational Interests

    Vocational interests are personal likes, preferences, and aspects of work that people enjoy.

    Landine, Jeffrey and John Stewart, “Assessment in Career Guidance.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.435.

    Volunteering

    Volunteering involves performing a service without pay in order to obtain work experiences, learn new skills, meet people, contribute to community, and contribute to a cause that’s important to the volunteer, such as helping animals, people in situation of poverty, the elderly or the environment.

    Pickerell, Deirdre A., “Work Search Strategies.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.215.
    W

    Work

    Work is a set of activities with an intended set of outcomes, from which it is hoped that a person will derive personal satisfaction and contribute to some greater goal. Work is not necessarily tied to paid employment, but to meaningful and satisfying activities, (e.g., volunteer work, hobbies).

    Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners. Glossary of Career Development Terms. 2012. Online: http://career-dev-guidelines.org/career_dev/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Glossary-of-Terms-changes-from-CD-Chapter-re-counselling.pdf (Retrieved on May 27, 2014)

    Work Permit

    Work permits in Canada consist of work visas and employment authorizations. A work permit is a document issued by officials of the Canadian government that allows a foreign individual to work temporarily at a specific job for a specific employer.

    Government of Canada. Work in Canada. Online: http://www.cic.gc.ca/enGlIsH/work/index.asp (Retrieved on August 8, 2014)

    Service Canada, “Work Permits.” Online: http://www.servicecanada.gc.ca/eng/goc/work_permits.shtml (Retrieved on August 8, 2014)

    Sutherland, Stephen J. and Hany Ibrahim, “Refugees in Canada: From Persecution to Preparedness.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.293.


    Working Poor

    Working poor is a term used to describe individuals and families who maintain regular employment (910 hours per year) but whose income fall below the poverty line, due to factors such as low levels of pay, high work expenses and dependent expenses.

    Arthur, Nancy and Sandra Collins, “Diversity and Social Justice.” In Blythe C. Shepard and Priya S. Mani (editors). Career Development Practice in Canada: Perspectives, Principles and Professionalism. Toronto: Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling (CERIC), 2014, p.98.
    What an invaluable reference document! As a career educator (check the glossary for what that means), the resource will contribute to my ongoing learning about our exciting field and support me in my work with clients, and coaching interns and peer educators. Thank you for creating a “Made in Canada” resource for the standard terms in our field.
    PENNY FRENO
    Simon Fraser University, BC
    Career Development is a fascinating and broad reaching profession with an abundance of theories, practices, and terms. I love the idea of having a central place where these ideas can be shared and where professionals can participate in shaping the language of the field.
    PAULA WISCHOFF YERAMA
    Career Development Association of Alberta, AB
    I was very happy to hear that this Glossary was being published. It’s overdue, but now I think the career development community is ready for it `{`and is`}` interested in exploring the common ground and developing common definitions. Thanks to this glossary project we have made a giant step forward towards creating a common language that we all can benefit from using. I give out huge thanks to the people who created this document and also to those who funded its creation.
    BRYAN HIEBERT
    University of Calgary, AB