Updated  September 2018

Topics covered in the literature search include:

  • Career engagement in early years, high school and post-secondary
  • Navigating school-to-work transitions
  • Accessibility and accountability of youth career counselling services in Canada
  • Developing career competencies in NEET and barriered youth
  • Youth entrepreneurship and career success
  • Role of government, business and schools in supporting youth

Abkhezr, P. (2018). Exploring the Career Development of Young People with Refugee Backgrounds: Finding Voice Through Narrative Inquiry. Thesis, Queensland University of Technology.

Abu Jaber, M. (2017). Why Matchmaking in Youth Employment Programs in Middle East North Africa Aren’t Working. Stanford Social Innovation.

Achola, E.O. (2016). Person-family centered transition planning: Improving post-school outcomes to culturally diverse youth and families. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, vol. 45, no, 2, pp. 173-183.

Aeimore, M., Moore, D., Krekanova Krofcheck, V. (2017). How Young Adults Choose a Career Path. Partner Work.

Afterschool Youth Development Network, (2011). Engaging Youth in Career Programming During Out-of-School Time. Pennsylvania State.

Alexander, C., and McKean, M. (2017). The Problem of Youth unemployment: Predicting the changing future of work. The Globe and Mail.

Alexander, K., & Hirsch, B. (2012). Marketable job skills for high school youth: What we learned from an evaluation of After School Matters. New Directions for Youth Development, 134, 55-63.

Ali, A., Ahsan, S. Dziegielewski, S.F. (2017). Social and family capital and youth career intension: A Case study in Pakistan. Cogent Business and Management, Vol. 4, Iss. 1.

Allen, K., Mendick, H. (2015). Celebrity culture and young people’s aspirations: a resource for careers education? Journal of the National Institute for Career Education and Counselling, Volume 34, Number 1, pp. 15-21(7).

Andreassen, I.H. (206). Career Aspirations and Self-Knowledge During Adolescence. Journal Plus Education. Vol XVI, pp. 15-23.

Arnett, J. (2016). The Oxford handbook of emerging adulthood. Oxford University Press.

Baker, S. (2018). Promoting Equitable Practice in the Delivery of Career and Technical Education. NCDA.

Bamber, J. (2012). Developing the creative and innovative potential of young people through non-formal learning in ways that are relevant to employability. Rethinking Education, 20.11.

Bancroft, L. (2017). Not So NEET: A Critical Policy Analysis of Ontario’s Youth Job Connection Program. Wilfrid Laurier University. Banks, D. & Oliveira, A. (2014).

Young Men’s initiative. Reports to the Mayor from the Chairs. 1-23. Metis Associates.

Bartlett, J., Domene, J. (2014). The Vocational Goals and Career Development of Criminally Involved Youth. Experiences That Help and Hinder. Journal of Career Development.

Bedurftig, M., Hieronimus, S., and Kerr, J. (2015). How business and government can bring young people into work. McKinsey & Company.

Bell, M.E. (2018). Career Pathways Through High School Advisor-Advisee Programming. NCDA.

Bell, D., Benes, K., Redekopp, D. (2016). Improving the School-to-Work Transitions of Youth in Canada: A Scoping Review. CCDF.

Bell, D., Bezanson, L. (2006). Career Development Services for Canadian Youth: Access, Adequacy and Accountability. Canadian Policy Research Networks.

Bellotti, J., Rosenberg, L., Sattar, S., Esposito, A. & Ziegler, J. (2010). Reinvesting in America’s youth: Lessons from the 2009 Recovery Act Summer Youth Employment Initiative. Mathematica Policy research.

Berry, J. (2018). How does society affect career development of young people? Timeless Time.

Betcherman, G., Khan, T. (2018). Jobs for Africa’s expanding youth cohort: a stocktaking of employment prospects and policy interventions. IZA Journal of Development and Migration 8:13.

Blossfeld, H-P., Klijzing, E., Mills, M. (2006). Globalization, Uncertainty and Youth in Society: The Losers in a Globalizing World. Routledge.

Bolduc, G. (2017). Improving our understanding of youth employment barriers in Canada. INRS.

Bonifacio, L. (2016). The Career Development of Latino Youth. Thesis, Columbia University.

Bowie, L., and Bronte-Tinkew, J. (2006). The Importance of Professional Development for Youth Workers. Research-to-Results.

Brown, T. (2010). Youth employability training: two experiments. Emerald Insight.

Brown, S.D., Lent, R.W. (2004). Career Development and Counseling: Putting Theory and Research to Work. John Wiley & Sons.

Buckley, P. (2015). An unbalanced age: Effects of youth unemployment on an aging society. Deloitte Press.

Burkett, B. (2012). The Plight of our Youth: Addressing the Youth Unemployment Crisis. Labour, Employment & Benefits.

Bynner, J. (2005). Rethinking the Youth Phase of the Life-course: The Case for Emerging Adulthood? Journal of Youth Studies, Volume 8, Issue 4.

Carnevale, A.P., and Landis-Santos, J. (2017). Beyond Career Assessment: Preparing Students for Life After High School. NCDA.

Carter, E.W., Trainor, A.A., Cakiroglu, O. (2009). Exploring School-Employer Partnerships to Expand Career development and Early Work Experiences for Youth with Disabilities. Sage Journal.

Carter, E.W., Trainor, A.A., Cakiroglu, O. (2009). Availability of and Access to Career Development Activities for Transition-Age Youth with Disabilities. Sage Journals.

Cobb, R.B., Alwell, M. (2009). Transition Planning/Coordinating Interventions for Youth with Disabilities. Sage Journals.

Constantine, M.G., Erickson, C.D., Banks, R.W., Timberlake, T.L. (2011). Challenges to the Career Development of Urban Racial and Ethnic Minority Youth: Implications for Vocational Intervention. Counseling and Development Journal of Multicultural. Volume 26, Issue 2.

Couyoumjian, A. (2018). Enhancing the Delivery of Career-Related Information with High Schoolers. NCDA.

Couture, V., Bang, N.M., McCoy Harless, A. (2018). Successful Career Counseling Interventions Used With Students in Poverty: A Preliminary Report.  NCDA.

Danzinger, S., & Ratner, D. (2010). Labor market outcomes and the transition to adulthood. Future of Children, 20, 133-158.

Data, N. (2017). Accelerating and learning from innovations in youth employment projects. The World Bank.

Dawes, B., Pearce, N., Reed, L. (2011). How youth get engaged: Grounded-theory research on motivational development in organized youth programs. Developmental Psychology, Vol 47, 259-269.

Deschenes, S., Arbreton, A., Little, P.M., Herrera, C., Grossman, J.B., Weiss, H.B., with Lee, D. (2010). Engaging older youth: Program and city-level strategies to support sustained participation in out-of-school time. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Family Research Project.

Diemer, M.A. (2008). Pathways to Occupational Attainment Among Poor Youth of Colour. The Role of Sociopolitical Development. Sage Journals.

Diemer, M.A. (2007). Parental and school influences upon the career development of poor youth of color. Journal of Vocational Behavior. Volume 70, Issue 3, Pages 502-524.

Diemer, M.A., Blustein, D.L. (2005). Critical consciousness and career development among urban youth. Journal of Vocational Behavior, Volume 68, Issue 2, Pages 220-232.

Dimond-Gibson, C., Finnegan, E., Warfield, K., and Dang, S. R. (2017). Personal and Social Development of Youth. Creative City Network of Canada.

Duehren, A. (2018). Youth Unemployment Hits 52-Year Low. Wall Street Journal.

Eccles, J., & Gootman, J. (2002). Community programs to promote youth development. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Edginton, C.R., Kowalski, C.L., Randall, S. W. (2005). Youth Work: Emerging Perspectives in Youth Development. Sagamore Publishing.

Ennis, P. (2018). Leveraging High School Career Advisory Boards to Promote Student Growth. NCDA.

Expert Panel on Youth Employment, (2016). Understanding the Realities Youth Employment in Canada. Government of Canada.

Ferry, N.M. (2006). Factors Influencing Career Choices of Adolescents and Young Adults in Rural Pennsylvania. Journal of Extension, Volume 44, Number 3.

Fryar, G., Jordan, E., and De Vooght, K. (2017). Supporting young people transitioning from foster care: findings from a national survey. Child Trends.

Galvan, A. M. and Negrete, A. (2017). Responding to Students’ Career Development Needs by Promoting Career Literacy. NCDA.

Garman, C. (2014). How to Re-Direct Students When Taking Unrealistic Career Paths. NCDA.

Gathers, L. B. (2015). Career Counseling Interventions with Students with ADHD: A Case Illustration. NCDA.

Gautam, S. (2016). Need of Soft Skills for Undergraduate Urban Youth for Career Development. Journal of Training and Development, Vol. 2.

Gharabaghi, K. (2008). Career development for child and youth. Journal of The International Child and Youth Care Network.

Gilkinson, T. (2016). The Benefits of Global Work Experience for Youth Employability and Career Development. International Experience Canada.

Godden, L. (2015). Youth Unemployment and Localized Impact: A Career Studies Teacher’s Story. Exceptionality Education International, vol. 25, iss. 1/7, 136-157.

Gough, K., Langevang, T., Owusu, G. (2013). Youth employment in a globalizing world. Liverpool University Press.

Harrington, K. (2018). Reclaiming Access to Inquiry-based Science Education (RAISE) for Incarcerated Students: An Investigation of Project-Based Inquiry Science within a Universal Design for Learning Framework in Juvenile Corrections Settings. Community for Advocacy Discovery Research in Education.

Height, J. (2016). Effective ways to support youth into employment. Social Ventures Australia.

Heinrich, C.J., & Holzer, H.J. (2010). Improving education and employment for disadvantaged young men: Proven promising strategies. National Poverty Center.

Hilliard, T. (2011). Fostering careers. Center for Urban Future. Of Home, Family and Future.

Hirsch, B., Hedges, L., Stanwich, J., & Mekinda, M. (2011). After school programs for high school students: An evaluation of After School Matters. Northwestern University.

Hirschi, A. (2009). Career adaptability development in adolescence: Multiple predictors and effect on sense of power and life satisfaction. Journal of Vocational Behavior. Volume 74, Issue 2, Pages 145-155.

Hocker, S. (2014). Improving Students’ Employable Skills Through Effective Communication. NCDA.

Hospital News, (2016). Mentoring program empowers youth to pursue a career in medicine. Hospital News.

Howard, K.A.S., Carlstrom, A.H., Katz, A.D., Chew, A.D., Ray, G.C., Laine, L., Caulum (2010). Career aspirations of youth: Untangling race/ethnicity, SES and gender. Journal of Vocational Behavior, Volume 79, Issue 1, Pages 98-109.

Hughes, K.L., Mechur Karp, M. (2004). School-Based Career Development: A Synthesis of the Literature. NTSC.

Hummel, H.G.K., Boyle, E.A., Einarsdottir, S., Petursdottir, A. (2017). Game-based career learning support for youth: effects of playing the Youth@Work game on career adaptability. Interactive Learning Environments, Volume 26, Issue 6.

Hynes, K., Hirsch, B.J. (2012). Career Programming: Linking Youth to the World of Work: New Directions for Youth. John Wiley & Sons.

Hynes, K., Greene, K.M., and Constance, N. (2012). Helping youth prepare for careers. What can Out-of-School Time Programs Do? Pennsylvania State University.

Hynes, K., Constance, N., Greene, K., Lee, B., and Halabi, S. (2011). Engaging Youth in Career Programming During Out-of-School Time: Lessons for Program Design from a Study of Experienced Out-of-School Time Programs.. Pennsylvania Statewide Afterschool/Youth Development Network.

Ibrahim Shittu, A. (2017). Promoting Youth Entrepreneurship: The Role of Mentoring. IDS Bulletin.

IDRC/CRDI (2016). Putting youth employment at the heart of growth. IDRC/CRDI.

IEL (2018). Supporting Career Development for Ontario Youth with Disabilities. Institute for Educational Leadership.

International Youth Foundation. (2014). Preparing Youth to Succeed: The Importance of Career Guidance. Global Partnership for Youth Employment.

Irwin, M.J., Byun, S-Y., Meece, J.L., and Farmer, T.W. (2012). Educational Barriers of Rural Youth: Relation of Individual and Contextual Difference Variables. Journal of Career Access 20(1): 71-87.

Ismail, Z. (2018). Lessons learned from youth employment programmes in developing countries. K4D.

Ismail, O. (2016). What is in a Job? The Social Context of Youth Employment Issues in Africa. Journal of African Economies, Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 37-60.

Jarvis, P. (2013). A Perfect Storm Awaits Unprepared Graduates. NCDA

Jetelina, M. (2017). New funding to support career development for Black youth in Ontario. Canadian Immigrant.

Johnson Nicholson, Collins, C., Holmer, H. (2004). Youth as People: the Protective Aspects of Youth Development in After-School Settings. Sage Journals.

Kalenkoski, C.M. (2016). The effects of minimum wages on youth employment and income. IZA World of Labor.

Kashefpakel, E.T., Mann, A., and Schleicher, M. (2016). The impact of career development activities on student attitudes towards school utility: an analysis of data from Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Education and Employers Research.

Kauh, T. (2011). AfterZone: Outcomes for youth participating in Providence’s citywide after-school system. Philadelphia, PA: Public/Private Ventures.

Khanna, N., MacCormack, J., Kutsyuruba, B., McCart, S., Freeman, J (2014). Critical Factors for Youth Thriving. YMCA of Greater Toronto.

Kitchenham, A. (2017). Career Development Success: Themes Among the Experiences of Young People Formerly in Care. CERIC.

Kolm, J. (2013). Generation Y’s sense of entitlement is partly the result of empty career promises. CBC News.

Krahn, H., Chow, A. (2016). Youth Unemployment and Career Scarring: Social-Psychological Mediating Effects. Canadian Journal of Sociology, 41(2).

Kram, K.E., and Isabella, L.A. (2017). Mentoring Alternatives: The Role of Peer Relationships in Career Development. Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 28, No. 1.

Kumar, K., Jones, D., Naden K., Roberts, C. (2015). Rural and remote young people’s health career decision making within a health workforce development program : a qualitative exploration. Rural and Remote Health 15: 3303.

Kunnen, E.S. (2013). The effects of Career Choice Guidance on Identity Development. Education research International.

Lane, A. (2013). Young people are having to take career decisions too early. The Guardian.

Lang, T. (2017). The Youth Employment Solution: From Universal Healthcare to Universal Employment. Osgood Hall Law Journal, Volume 54, Issue 4.

Maiolo, M.E., Cortini, M., Zuffo, R.G. (2013). Education or Employment? The Challenging Choice of Today’s Youth. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences. Volume 84, Pages 298-302.

Lawrence, B. (2016). College is not for Everyone, but Postsecondary Credit is! NCDA.

Marimpi, M., Koning, P. (2018). Youth minimum wages and youth employment. Springer Link.

Matthews, S. and Tanzi, A. (2018). Hold the Bubbly, Mr. President: Youth Jobs Are Far From Record. Bloomberg.

McANN, M. (2016). What can parents do about youth unemployment? W.P. Consulting & Associates.

McCormick, K.R. (2017). Youth & the Future of Work. IYF.

Mekinda, MA. (2012). Support for career development in youth : Program models and evaluations. New Direction Youth Development.

Michel, J-P. (2017). Rethinking Career Development for Youth : Focus on Challenges and Opportunities. NCDA.

Miller, R.J., Lombard, R.C., Corbey, S. A. (2018). Transition Assessment : Planning Transition and IEP Development for Youth with Mild to Moderate Disabilities. Prime Book Box.

Moffat, N. (2015). Entrepreneurship program to give young their own careers. Sunshine Coast Daily.

Mogomots, G.E.J. (2017). A cursory discussion of policy alternatives for addressing youth unemployment in Botswana. Cogent.

Montgomery, D. (2016). The Rise of Creative Youth Development. Taylor & Francis in Arts Education Policy Review.

Moody, B., Kruse, G., Nagel, J., and Conlon, B. (2008). Career Development Project for Incarcerated Youth: Preparing for the Future. Journal of Correctional Education, Vol. 59, No. 3, pp. 231-243.

Moore, M. (2014). Helping Students See High School as a Stepping Stone to their Future. NCDA.

Morgan, L.M. K-12 College and Career readiness Standards: Transforming Postsecondary Planning. NCDA.

Morrow, S.L. (2008). Career Development of Lesbian and Gay Youth. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services. Volume 7, Issue 4.

Mullen, M., Ellison, M. (2012). Helping Youth on the Path to Employment (HYPE). University of Massachusetts Medical School.

Murfey, G. (2016). Youth Employment and Global Business Ethics. Kogan Page.

National Collaboration for Youth. (2011). The Impact of Youth Development Programs on Student Academic Achievement. National Collaboration for Youth.

Nhu-Y Tran, T. (2015). Draw My Life: An Exercise to Help Students Connect with Counselors and Peers. NCDA.

North Central Regional Planning Commission. (2018). Engaging Youth a Valuable Investment: Career Exploration and Leadership Program. NCRPC.

Nota, L., Ferrari, L., Solberg, V.S.H. (2007). Career Search Self-Efficacy, Family Support, and Career Indecision with Italian Youth. Journal of Career Assessment.

Okubo, Y., Yeh, C.J., Lin, P-Y., Fujita, K., Shea, J. M-Y. (2011). The Career Decision-Making Process of Chinese American Youth. Journal of Counseling & Development. Volume 85, Issue 4.

O’Perry, J.C., Liu, X., Pabian, Y. (2009). School Engagement as a Mediator of Academic Performance Among Urban Youth: The Role of Career Preparation, Parental Career Support, and Teacher Support. The Counselling Psychologist.

Ortiz, E. (2017). The global youth unemployment crisis: the great challenge of our time (along with climate change). Equal Times.

Patton, G., Olsson, C., Skirbekk, V., Saffery, R., Wlodek, M., Azzopardi, P., Stonawski, M., Rasmussen, B., Spry, E., francis, K., Bhutta, Z., Kassebaum, N., Mokdad, A., Murray, C., Prentice, A., Reavley, N., Sheehan, P., Sweeny, P. Sweeny, K., Viner, R and Sawyer, S. (2018). Adolescence and the next generation. Nature

Perry, J.C. (2008). School Engagement Among Urban Youth of Color. Journal of Career Development.

Picatoste, J. (2017). Smart cities for wellbeing: youth employment and their skills on computers. Emerald Publishing Limited.

Pierson, M.R., Carter, E.W., Lane, K.L.L. (2008). Factors Influencing the Self-Determination of Transition-Age Youth with High Incidence Disabilities. Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals.

Polvere, R-A., and Lim, P. (2015). Career Development supporting young Australians. NCVER.

Porfeli, E.J., Lee, B. (2012). Career development during childhood and adolescence. Wiley Online Library.

Preble, B.C. (2017). Workforce Counseling: A Conceptual Model to Better Prepare High School Students for the School to Work Transition. NCDA.

Rafferty, J. (2018). Pediatricians are key to supporting transgender, gender-diverse youths. AAP.

Rahman, R., and Farrell, L. (2017). How Purpose and Holistic Health Are Foundational for Youth Career Development. World Policy.

Rieffel, L. (2018). Urban youth unemployment: A looming crisis? Brookings.

Robertson, H. (2018). Post-High School Planning for Graduates who are not College-Bound. NCDA.

Robertson, P.J. (2016). Identifying and Measuring Capabilities for Career Development in NEET Young People. Recherches sociologiques et anthropologiques.

Rojewski, J.W., Kim, H. (2003). Career Choice Patterns and Behavior of Work-Bound Youth During Early Adolescence. Journal of Career Development, Volume 30, Issue 2, pp. 89-108.

Rosvall, P-A, (2016). Understanding career development amongst immigrant youth in a rural place. Intercultural Education, Volume 28, Issue 6.

Ryder, G. (2016). 3 ways we can tackle youth employment. Huff Post.

Saleem, N., Ahmad Hanan, M., Saleem, I and Majid Shamshad, R. (2014). Career Selection: Role of Parent’s Profession, Mass Media and Personal Choice. Bulletin of Education and Research, Vol. 36, No. 2, pp. 25-37.

Sanders, C. and Havlik, S. (2015). Career Development for Students Experiencing Homelessness. NCDA.


Schmidt, C.K., Nilsson, J.E. (2011). The Effects of Simultaneous Developmental Processes: Factors Relating to the Career Development of Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Youth. The Career Development Quarterly, Volume 55, Issue 1.

Seemiller, C. (2018). A Competency-Based Model for Youth Leadership Development. Journal of Leadership Education.

Shea, M., Ma, P-W. W. W., Yeh, C.J. (2011). Development of a Culturally Specific Career Exploration Group for Urban Chinese Immigrant Youth. The Career Development Quarterly, Volume 56, Issue 1.

Shimomura, H., Muroyama, H. (2010). Youth Career Development Support at School and Career Development: For Cooperation between Career Education and Labor Administration. The Japan Institute for Labour Policy and Training.

Smith, K.A., Homes, K., Haski-Leventhal, D., Cnaan, R.A., Handy, F., Brudney, J.L. (2010). Motivations and Benefits of Student Volunteering: Comparing Regular, Occasional, and Non-Volunteers in Five Countries. Canadian Journal of Nonprofit and Social Economy Research. Vol. 1, No. 1, 65-81.

Solberg, V.S.H., Carlstrom, A.H., Howard, K.A., Jones, J.E. (2011). Classifying At-Risk High School Youth: The Influence of Exposure to Community Violence and Protective Factors on Academic and Health Outcomes. The Career Development Quarterly. Volume 55, Issue 4.

Song, J. (2018). Young people, precarious work, and the development of youth employment policies in Japan. Japanese Journal of Political Science, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp. 444-460.

Souza-Rezendes, E. (2018). Corporate Mentoring Meets the Classroom. Forbes.

Storlie, C. (2015). Revisiting Challenges and Reviving Hope While Career Counseling Undocumented Youth. NCDA

Taylor, P.S. (2018). Canada’s youth are the clear losers from a higher minimum wage. MacLean’s

Templeton, T. (2017). Applying the I-Search Approach to Student Directed Career Exploration. NCDA.

The Daily Examiner, (2016). Youth jobless rate worst in rural, regional areas. The Chronical.

The Express Tribune, (2018). Addressing unemployment: K-P to offer career opportunities to youth. The Express Tribune.

Thomas, J. (2012). Youth Career Counselling: Tips for Engaging Generation Y. ContactPoint.

Tillson, Jr., G.P. (2015). Enhancing cross-agency collaboration through the use of a universal discovery instrument: Introducing the Life and Career Assessment Matrix. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 257-271.

Timmons, J., Wills, J., Kemp, J., Basha, R. & Mooney, M. (2010). Charting the Course: Supporting the Career Development of Youth with learning Disabilities. Washington, DC: Institute for Educational Leadership, National Collaboration on Workforce and Disability for Youth.

Timmons, J., Zalewska, A., Fesko, S. (2008). Considering Community Service: Career Development for Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder. ThinkWork.

Timmons, J., Podmostko, M., Bremer, C., Lavin, D., Wills, J. (2005). Career Planning Begins with Assessment: A Guide for Professionals Serving Youth with Educational and Career Development Challenges. University of Minnesota.

Van der Merwe, M., Ngalo, A., & Redelmeier, R. (2018). Youth Unemployment in Focus: When you’re job-hunting so long that you’re no longer young. Daily Maverick.

VanderKolk, K. (2014). Benefits of youth participation in Career Development Events. Michigan State University Extension.

Vanin, G. (2015). The role of a career counsellor in enhancing the career development process of secondary school students. Thesis, Australian Catholic University.

Venn, D. (2018). Indigenous youth employment and the school-to-work transition. Canberra, ACT: Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research.

Wambu, G. (2018). Career Decision Making of African-Immigrant Students: What Career Counselors Need to Know. NCDA.

Waterford, C.T., Waterford, M., Goodwin-Smith, I., Wood, L., Yourell, T., and Ho, C. (2016). Childhood adversity, sense of belonging and psychosocial outcomes in emerging adulthood: a test of mediated pathways. Children and Youth Services Review, Volume 63: 110-119.

Whiston, S.C., Keller, B.K. (2004). The Influences of the Family of Origin on Career Development. The Counseling Psychologist.

Wuerth, S., Lee, M.J., Alfermann, D. (2004). Parental involvement and athletes’ career in youth sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 21-33.

Zafft, C., Hart, D., and Zimbrich, K. (2004). College Career Connection: A Study of Youth with Intellectual Disabilities and the Impact of Postsecondary Education. Vol. 39, No. 1, Special Topical Issue Postsecondary Education. Pp. 45-53.

Zimmerman, E. (2009). Helping Teenagers Find Their Dreams. The New York Times.