Career Development Challenges Facing Immigrants
|Create Date||March 6, 2015|
|Last Updated||May 17, 2018|
|Literature Search Career development challenges facing immigrants updated November, 2016 Hyperlinked||Download|
Topics covered include:
- Educational attainment,
- Post-secondary education,
- Bridging programs,
- Gender, class and race,
- Immigrant skills,
- Immigrant women,
- and more.
The Intersection of Diversity and Work with an Emphasis on
Career Development Challenges Facing Immigrants
(Updated November 2016)
Abada, T., Hou, F., & Ram, B. (2008). “Group Differences in Educational Attainment among the Children of Immigrants.” Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series. Catalogue No. 11F0019M-308. Ottawa, ON: Statistics Canada.
Abada, T. & Tenkorang, E.Y. (2009). “Pursuit of University Education among the Children of Immigrants in Canada: The Roles of Parental Human Capital and Social Capital”. Journal of Youth Studies, 12(2):185-207.
ACCC. (2007). Responding to the Needs of Immigrants, Results of the Diagnostic Survey of College and Institute Programs and Services for Immigrants and Conclusions of the College and Institute Immigration Roundtable: Final Report. Ottawa: Association of Canadian Community Colleges.
Acker, J. 2006. Inequality regimes: Gender, class and race in organizations. Gender and Society, 20, 441-464.
Adamuti-Trache, M. & Sweet, R. (2010). “Adult Immigrants’ Participation in Canadian Education and Training.” Canadian Journal of Studies in Adult Education.
Adumuti-Trache, M. (2008). First four years in Canada: Work and post-secondary education pathways of highly-skilled immigrants. Paper read at the 10th National Metropolis Conference, Halifax, April 3-6, 2008.
Adumuti-Trache, M. and Sweet, R. (2005). Exploring the relationship between educational credentials and the earnings of immigrants. Canadian Studies in Population, 32(2): 177-201.
Agawal, S., Qadeer, M., & Prasad, A. (2007). Immigrants Needs and Public Service Provision in Peel Region. Plan Canada. Summer.
Aiyar, S., Barkbu, B., Batini, N., Berger, H., Detragiache, E., Dizioli, A., Ebeke, C., Lin, H., Kaltani, L., Sosa, S., Spilimbergo, A., and Topalova, P. (2016). The Refugee Surge in Europe: Economic Challenges. SDN
Akhter, A., Chakrawarti, R., Rasheed, N. A Review of Bridge Training Programs for Immigrants with Professional Backgrounds in Ontario: Exploratory Findings. Toronto: Policy Roundtable Mobilizing Professions and Trades (PROMPT). June 2006.
Alexander, C., Burleton, D., Fong, F. (2012). Knocking Down Barriers Faced by New Immigrants to Canada. Fitting the Pieces Together. TD Economics.
Alboim, N. and McIsaac, E. “Making the Connections: Ottawa’s Role in Immigrant Employment” in IRPP Choices 13(3). 2007.
Alboim, N., Finnie, R., and Meng, R. “The Discounting of Immigrants’ Skills in Canada”. in IRPP Choices 11(2). Ottawa: Institute for Research on Public Policy. 2005
Ahmad, F., Shik, A., Vanza, R., Cheung, A.M., George, U., & Stewart, D.E. (2004). Voices of South Asian women: Immigration and mental health. Women and Health. 40(4), 113-126.
Alberta Employment and Immigration, Alberta Profiles: Immigrants in the Labour Force. (2008), 14, Employment. Alberta.ca.bi/2660.html.
Alboim, N., and McIsaac, E., (2007). Making the Connections: Ottawa’s Role in Immigrant Employment. Immigration and Refugee Policy (IRPP) Choices 13 (3).
Alboim, N., Finnie, R., & Meng, R. (2005). The discounting of immigrants’ skills in Canada: Evidence and policy recommendations. IRPP Choices 11, no. 2, pp. 1-26.
Anderson, S.K., & Middleton, V.A. 2005. Explorations in privilege, oppression, and diversity. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Angus, M. (2009). New Study Highlights Employment Barriers for Immigrants. CPJ.
Anisef, P., Sweet, R., & Adamuti-Trache, M. (2010). Impact of Canadian Postsecondary Education on Recent Immigrants’ Labour Market Outcomes. Retrieved from http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/research/impact_postsecondary.asp
Anisef, P. et al. “Issues Confronting Newcomer Youth in Canada: Alternative Models for a National Youth Host Program.” Working Paper Series, no. 39. Toronto: CERIS, 2005:10.
Arthur, N., & Flynn, S. (2011). Career development influences of international students who pursue permanent immigration to Canada. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance. 11(3), 221-237.
Arthur, N. & Collins, S. (2010). Culture Infused counselling supervision. In N. Pelling, J. Bartletta, & P. Armstrong (Eds.) Practice of Supervision (pp. 267-295). Bowen Hills, QLD: Australian Academic Press.
Arthur, N. (2010). Learners in cross-cultural transition: Counselling international students (2nd ed.) 9(1), 423-446. Calgary, AB: Counselling Concepts.
Arthur, N. & Peterson, P. (Eds.) (2008). Case incidents in counselling for international transitions. Alexandria, VA: American Counselling Association.
Arthur, N., Merali, N., “Counselling Immigrants and Refugees”, in Culture-Infused Counselling: Celebrating the Canadian Mosaic, eds. N. Arthur and S. Collins, 344 (Calgary, AB: Counselling Concepts, 2005)
Arthur, N., McMahon, M. Multicultural career counselling: theoretical applications of the systems theory framework, Career Development Quarterly, (March 2005).
Arthur, N., and McMahon, M., “Embracing Culture in Career Practice Using a Systems Theory Framework, in Building Tomorrow Today Consultation Proceedings (Edmonton, AB: The Career Development Association of Alberta, 2004, 42-45.
Arthur, N. (2004). Counseling international students from around the world. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
Arthur, R. (2006). Immigrating: nominee Program Wooing Newcomers to Nova Scotia. Canadian Newcomer.
Asanin, J., & Wilson, (2009). ‘Education? It is irrelevant to my job now. It makes me very depressed’: Exploring the health impacts of under/unemployment among highly skilled recent immigrants in Canada. Ethnicity & Health, 14, 185-204.
Austin, Z. and Rocchi Dean, M. (2006). Bridging education for foreign-trained professionals: the International Pharmacy Graduate (IPG) Program in Canada. Teaching in Higher Education, 11(1): 19-32.
Avery, D.R., McKay, P.F., & Wilson, D.C. (2007). Engaging the aging workforce : the relationship between perceived age similarity, satisfaction with coworkers, and employee engagement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 1542-1556.
Aydemir, A. and Skuterud, M. (2005). “Explaining the deteriorating entry earnings of Canada’s immigrant cohorts, 1966-2000.” Canadian Journal of Economics 38(2): 641-672.
Awuah-Mensah, L. (2016). Examining the Experiences of Government Assisted Refugee Women with Settlement Services in Kitchener-Waterloo. Social Justice and Community Engagement. Paper 15.
Ball, P., Monaco, G., Schmeling, J., Schartz, H., & Blanck, P., Disability as diversity in Fortune 100 companies. Behavioral Sciences and the Law. 23, 97-121.
Bambrah, G. (2006). Engineering Access Project: Final Report: Survey of Immigrants with Engineering Backgrounds Settling in Ontario, Engineering Employers and Community Supports. Toronto: The Council for Access to the Profession of Engineering.
Barinaga, E. (2007). ‘Cultural diversity at work: ‘national culture’ as a discourse organizing an international project group. Human Relations, 60, 315-340.
Batalova, J., and Fix, M. (2008). Uneven Progress: The Employment Pathways of Skilled Immigrants in the United States. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute. www.migrationpolicy.org/pubs/BrainWasteOct08.pdf.
Bauder, H. (2006). Origin, employment status and attitudes towards work: Immigrants in Vancouver, Canada. Work, Employment and Society, 20, 709-729.
Belkhodja, C. (2009). “Toward a more welcoming community?” Observations on the Greater Moncton Area.” http://canada.metropolis.net/policypriority/welcoming_e.htm
Berger, R. (2004). Immigrant women tell their stories. New York, NY, US: Hayworth Press.
Bernhard, H., Tate., (2008). ‘Meeting the Needs of Immigrants throughout the Life Cycle’ – Discussion Paper 2008 prepared for Peel Newcomer Strategy Group.
Berry, J.W. & Sabatier, C. (2009). Acculturation, discrimination, and adaptation among second generation immigrant youth in Montreal and Paris. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 34, 191-207.407541.
Berry, J.W. (2006). Mutual attitudes among immigrants and ethnocultural groups in Canada. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30, 719-734.
Berry, J.W. (2005). Acculturation: Living successfully in two cultures. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 29, 697-712.
Bhandari, B.S., Horvath, S., & To, R. (2006). Choices and Voices of Immigrant Men: reflections on Social Integration. Canadian Ethnic Studies, 38(1), 140-148. http://umanitoba.ca/publications/ces/EnMainPage.htm
Birrell, B., and McIsaac, E. (2006). “Immigration and Small Business: Ideas to Better respond to Canada’s Skills and Labour Shortage.“ Ottawa: Canadian Federation of Independent Business.
Blair, K. (2005). Integrating immigrants into the Canadian labor market. Ontario Council of Agencies Serving Immigrants.
Bloemraad, I, Korteweg, A., and Yurakul, G. Citizenship and Immigration: Multiculturalism, Assimilation and Challenges to the Nation-State. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 34, 153-179 (August 2008).
Blythe, J., Baumann, A., Rheaume, A., & McIntosh, K., (2009). Nurse migration to Canada: Pathways and pitfalls of workforce integration. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 20, 202-210.
Bollman, R.D., Beshiri, R., & Clemenson, H. (2007). Immigrants to rural Canada. Diverse Cities (3), (Summer 2007).
Bonilla-Silva, E., Lewis, A., Embrick, D.G. (2004). “I Did Not Get That Job because of a Black Man’ : The Stories and Testimonies of Color-Blind Racism.” Sociological Forum 19:555-81.
Bostelarr, R. (2010). Newcomers strive to ‘speak office’. The Ottawa Citizen.
Boudarbat, B., and Boulet, M. (2007). Détérioration des salaires des nouveaux immigrants au Québec par rapport a la Colombie-Britannique. Choix, 13(7).
Bourgeois, A. et al. (2006). “Immigration and Small Business: Ideas to Better Respond to Canada’s Skills and Labour Shortage.” Ottawa: Canadian Federation of Independent Business. www.cfib.ca/research/reports/rr3026.pdf
Boyd, M., & Schellenberg, G. (2007). Re-accreditation and the occupations of immigrant doctors and engineers. Canadian Social Trends, 84, 2-10 (Catalogue No. 11-008). Ottawa, On: Statistics Canada
Britton, D., and Logan, L. (2008). “Gendered Organizations: Progress and Prospects.” Sociology Compass 2:107-21.
Busic, T. (2011). Optimal Life-Career Development of Immigrant Professionals. Thesis. OISE, University of Toronto.
Caidi, N. and Allard, D. “Social Inclusion of Newcomers to Canada: An Information Problem.” Policy Matters, no. 23. Toronto: CERIS, 2005:5.
Calder, K., Harper, K., Ball, K., & Liang, D. (2009). When Values and Behaviours Conflict: Immigrant BSW Students’ Experiences revealed. Journal of Ethic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work, 18(1-2), 110-128.
Camarota, S.A., & Jensenius, K. (2009). Trends in Immigrant and Native Employment. Centre for Immigration Studies, 1-21.
Canas, K., Sondak, H., 2011. Opportunities and Challenges of Workplace Diversity, 2/E, Prentice Hall.
Capps, R., Fix, M., and Yi-Ying Li, S. (2010). Still an Hourglass? Immigrant Workers in Middle-Skilled Jobs. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute. www.migrationpolicy.org/pubs/sectoralstudy-Sept2010.pdf
Carlson, H.K. & McHenry, M.A. (2006). Effect of accent and dialect on employability. Journal of Employment Counseling, 43(2), 70-83.
Carter, T. (2008). “Attracting Immigrants to Smaller Urban and Rural Communities: Lessons Learned from the Manitoba Provincial Nominee Program.” Journal of International Migration and Integration, 9, 161-183.
Chen, C.P., & Lee, W. (2011). Ethnicity and careers of Chinese-Canadian young adults. New York: Nova Science Publishers.
Chen, C., Smith, P., & Mustrad, C. (2010). The prevalence of over-qualification and its association with health status among occupationally active new immigrants to Canada. Ethnicity & Health, 15, 601-619.
Chen, C.P. (2008). Career guidance with immigrants. In J. Athanasou & R.V. Esbroeck (Eds.), International Handbook of Career Guidance (pp. 419-442). New York: Springer.
Chen, C.P. (2006). Career endeavour: pursuing a cross-cultural life transition. Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate.
Chicha, M.-T., Charest, È. and Farrah, J.-S. (2008). L’intègration des immigrès sur le marchè du travail a Montrèal ploitique et enjeux. Choix, 13(7).
Chiswick, B.R., & Miller, P.W. (2008). The international transferability of immigrants’ human capital. Economics of Education Review. 28, 162-169.
Chowhan, J. (2015). Who has more job satisfaction, immigrants or Canadian-born employees? McMaster University.
Chui, T., and Tran, K. (2005). Immigration Overview: Permanent and Temporary Residents. Scholary Press.
Citizen and Immigration Canada. (2004). “The Economic Performance of Immigrants: Immigration Category Perspective.” The Monitor, Spring. Ottawa.
Cobb-Clark, D., Connolly, M.D., and Worswick, C. (2005). Post-migration investments in education and job search: a family perspective. Journal of Population Economics, 18(4): 663-690.
Cohen-Golner, S., & Eckstein, Z. (2008). Labor Mobility of Immigrants: Training, Experience, Language, and Opportunities. International Economic Review, 449(3), 837-872.
Colgan, F.(2010). ‘Equality, Diversity and Sexual Orientation at Work: Moving Towards A Cross-Strand Approach? Equality, Diversity and Inclusion Conference: Vienna University of economics & Business, Vienna, 15-16 July, 2010.
Collins, S., & Arthur, N. (2007). A Framework for Enhancing Multicultural Counselling Competence. Canadian Journal of Counselling, 41(1), 31-49.
Conference Board of Canada. (2012). Immigration knowledge area. Conference Board of Canada
Corak, M. (2008). “Immigration in the Long Run: The Education and Earnings Mobility of Second Generation Canadians”. IRPP Choices, 14(13).
Cornelson, K., & Desjardins, D. (2011). “Immigrant Labour Market Outcomes in Canada: The Benefits of Addressing Wage and Employment Gaps.” RBC Economics Current Analysis.
Couser, G. (2007). Twelve tips for developing training programs for international medical graduates. Medical Teacher, 29(5), 427-430.
Cresse, G., Dyck, I., and MacLean A. (2006). ‘The flexible Immigrant Household, Strategies and the Labour Market.’ Vancouver Centre of Excellence Research on Immigration and Integration in the Metropolis.
Creticos, P.A., Schultz, J.M., Beeler, A., Ball, E. (2006). The Integration of Immigrants in the Workplace. Institute for Work and the Economy.
Dean, J.A., & Wilson, K., (2009). ‘Education? It is irrelevant to my job now. It makes me very depressed…’ Exploring the health impacts of under/unemployment among highly skilled recent immigrants in Canada. Ethnicity & Health, 14, 185-204.
Derwing, T.M., Waugh, E., (May 2012). Language skills and the social integration of Canada’s adult immigrants. IRPP Study, 2012(31).
Derwing, T. and Krahn, H. (2006). “Edmonton’s Approach to Attracting and Retaining Immigrants.” Our Diverse Cities Vol. 2: 9-13.
Derwing, T., Krahn, H., Foote, J., Diepenbroek, L. (2005). The Attraction and Retention of Immigrants to Edmonton. A Report Submitted to Edmonton City Council and Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Edmonton: City of Edmonton.
Desjardins, D., & Cornelson, K. (2011). Immigrant labour market outcomes in Canada: The benefits of addressing wage and employment gaps. Retrieved from http://www.rbc.com/economics/market/pdf/immigration.pdf.
DeVoretz, D.J., (2006). A history of Canadian recruitment of highly skilled immigrants: Circa 1980-2001. RIIM, Simon Fraser University and IZA Bonn, #2197.
Downie, M. (2010). Immigrants as Innovators Boosting Canada’s Global Competitiveness. The Conference Board of Canada.
Duehr, E.E., & Bono, J.E. (2006). Men, women, and managers: are stereotypes finally changing? Personnel Psychology, 59(4), 815-847.
Easter, M., & Refki, D. (2004). Creating successful programs for immigrant youth. Practice Matters. Act for Youth Upstate Center of Excellence.
Ehrensaft, E., & Tousignant, M. (2006). Immigration and resilience. In D.L. Sam & J.W. Berry (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of acculturation psychology (pp. 469-483). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Elez, T. (2014). Restoring Hope: Responding to Career Concerns of Immigrant Clients. The Canadian Journal of Career Development Volume 13 Number 1.
Erlebach, A.C. (2011). Doing Well in Canada: A Critical Incident Study of Immigrants’ Experiences. Thesis. The University of British Columbia.
Esses, V.M., Dietz, J., & Bhardwaj, A. (2006). The role of prejudice in the discounting of immigrant skills. In R. Mahalingam (Ed.), Cultural Psychology of Immigrants (pp. 133-130). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Fang, T. and Zikic, J., Novicevic, M.M. Career success of immigrant professionals: stock and flow of their career capital. International Journal of Manpower, (2009). Volume 30, Issue 5, pp. 472-488.
Farahani, N., Franklin, C., McTague, A., Smola, N., Throop, B., Vallieres, B. (2009). Canadian Immigrant Integration Literature Review. Peterborough Partnership Council on Immigrant Integration.
Fong, K. (2008). ‘Overcoming structural racial discrimination: An analysis of the Toronto region Immigration Employment Councils’ approach to improving skilled immigrants labour market integration.’ Thesis. University of Toronto.
Froy, F. and Giguére. “From Immigration to Integration: Local Solutions to a Global Challenge.” OECD Publishing, 2006: 118.
Gah-Ian Lau, K. (2010). Career Compromise in Immigrant Professionals in Canada, Thesis, University of Toronto.
Galabuzzi, G.E. (2005). Factors affecting the social economic status of Canadian immigrants in the new millennium. Canadian Issues, Spring, 53-57.
Galarneau, D., & Morissette, R. (2008). Immigrants’ education and required job skills. Perspectives on Labour and Income, Catalogue no. 75-001-X
Galarneau, D., & Morrisette, R. (2004). Immigrants: Settling for less? Perspectives on Labour and Income, 5, 5-16. (Catalogue no. 75-001-XIE). Ottawa, ON: Statistics Canada.
Galerneau, D., & Morrisette, R. (2008). Immigrants’ education and required job skills. Perspective on Labour and Income, 9, 5-18. (catalogue no. 75-001-X). Ottawa, ON: Statistics Canada.
Garcea, J. (2006). “Attraction and Retention of Immigrants by Saskatchewan’s Major Cities.” Our Diverse Cities Vol. 2: 14-19.
Gariba, S.A. (2009). Race, Ethnicity, Immigration and Jobs: Labour Market Access Among Ghanaian and Somali Youth in the Greater Toronto Area. Thesis. OISE, University of Toronto.
Gates-Gase, and Lassonde, J. (2015). The Settlement and Integration Needs of Francphone LGBTQIA Immigrants and Refugees in Ontario. Ontario Ministry of Citizenship, Immigration and International Trade.
Gelfand, M.J., Erez, M., & Aycan, Z. (2007). Cross-cultural organizational behaviour. Annual Review of Psychology, 58(1), 479-514.
Gilmore, J., & Le Petit, C. (2008). The Canadian immigrant labour market in 2007 : Analysis by region of postsecondary education. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 71-606-XWE-No. 4. Immigrant Labour Force Analysis Series. Ottawa.
Girard, M. (2010). Match between pre-and postmigration education among new immigrants: determinants and payoffs. Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 40, 81-99.
Girard, E., & Bauder, H. (2005). Barriers blocking the integration of foreign-trained immigrant professionals: Implications for smaller communities in Ontario. University of Guelph. Department of Geography.
Godin, J.F., & Renaud, J. (2005). Work and immigrants: An analysis of employment activity in the first ten years of establishment in the Montreal area. Journal of International Migration and Integration. 6(3/4), 469-492.
Gomberg-Munoz, R. (2010). Willing to Work: Agency and vulnerability in an undocumented immigrant network. American Anthropologist, 112(2), 295-307.
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Grant, P.R. & Nadin, S. (2007). The credentialing problems of foreign trained personnel from asia and Africa intending to make their home in Canada: A social psychological perspective. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 8, 141-162.
Grant, P.R. (2007). Accessing the Higher Echelons of a Host Country’s Labour Market: Policy Directions from the Personal Experiences of Skilled immigrants. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 8(2): 135-139.
Grant, H. & Sweetman, A. (2004). Introduction to economic and urban issues in Canadian immigration policy. Canadian Journal of Urban Research, 13, 24.
Guo, S. (2010). Learning for self-sufficiency among immigrants in Canada: the role of community-based adult education. In M.V. Alfred (Ed.), Learning for economic self-sufficiency: constructing pedagogies of hope among low-income, low literate adults (pp. 175-192). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.
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Hayakawa, Y. (2007). Access to professions: the experience of Japanese immigrants in Canada. Theses and dissertations. Paper 559. Ryerson University.
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Hawthorne, L. (2006). Labour Market Outcomes for Migrant Professionals: Canada and Australia Compared: HRSDC. Ottawa. Canada
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Heilbrunn, S., Kushnirovich, N., & Zeltzer-Zubida, A. (2010). Barriers to immigrants’ integration into the labour market: Modes and coping. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 34(3), 244-252.
Hiebert, D. (2006). Winning, losing and still playing the game: the political economy of immigration in Canada. Tijdschrift voor Economicshe en Sociale Geografie, 97(1), 38-48.
Hongxia, S. (2009). Shaping the Re-Training and Re-education Experiences of Immigrant Women: The credential and certificate Regime in Canada. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 28(3), 353-369.
Hosoda, M., & Stone-Romero, E. (2010). The effects of foreign accents on employment-related decisions. Journal of Managerial Psychology. 25. 113-132.
Hou, F. (2008). Immigrants Working with Co-ethnics: Who Are They and How Do They Fare Economically? Statistics Canada Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series, Business and Labour Market Analysis division, Catalogue no. 11F0019M-No. 310
Houle, R., & Schellenberg, G. (2010). New immigrants’ assessments of their life in Canada. Statistics Canada catalogue no. 11F0019M. Ottawa. Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series. No. 322.
Houle, R., & Yssaad, L., (September 2010). Recognition of newcomers’ foreign credentials and work experience. Perspectives, 11(9)
HRSDC. (2008d). Immigrant Social and/or Economic Integration Program Inventory. Ottawa: Human Resources and Skills Development Canada.
Huang, H. ((2013). Counselling Obstacles for the Immigrant. Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association.
Hum, D. and Simpson, W. Economic integration of immigrants to Canada: A short survey. Canadian Journal of Urban Research 13 (2004), 46-61.
Ikura, J. (2007). Foreign Credential Recognition and Human Resources and Social Development Canada. Canadian Issues. Spring, 17-20.
James, I. (2013). A Few Challenges Facing Canadian Immigrants. Ezine.
Jasinskaja-Lahti, I., Liebkind, K., Jaakkola, M., & Reuter, A. (2006a). Perceived discrimination, social support networks and psychological well-being among three immigrant groups. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 37, 1-19.
Jeans, M.E., Hadley, F., Green, J., and Prat, C.D. (2005). Navigating to Become and Nurse in Canada: Assessment of International Nurse Applicants. Ottawa: Canadian Nurses Association.
Kakoli, M. (June 15, 2010). Trends in employment of highly skilled immigrant women in Alberta. Retrieved from http://thecurrentbowvalleycollege.ca/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/Kakoli-M-Literature-Review-Final-report.pdf.
Kalsi, K., Colgan, F., Tomlinson, F., Farnworth, F and Reynard, A. 2009. ‘Changing patterns of career and identity amongst a group of older women entrepreneurs’, Paper presented at equal Opportunities International Conference, Bosphorus University in Instanbul on July 2009.
Kantamneni, N., Dharmalingam, K., Tate, J., Perlman, B., Majmudar,C. (2016). DREAMing Big: Understanding the Current Context of Academic and Career Decision-Making for Undocumented Students. Educational Psychology Papers and Publications. Paper 210.
Kasparian, S. “A New Model for Receiving and Integrating francophone Immigrants into minority Communities: Centre d’accueil et d’intégration des immigrants du Moncton métropolitain,” Canadian Issues; (Spring 2008): 94-97.
Keledijian, G. Canadian Experience: The Newcomer Services View. Mennonite New Life, Summer 2012, Volume 4, Issue 1.
Kennedy, T.K. (2012). Exploring the Influence of Optimism and Self-efficacy on New and Professional Immigrants’ Retraining Experiences in Canada. Thesis, OISE, University of Toronto.
Keung, N. (2016). Gloomier future seen for Canadian immigration. Toronto Star
Khan, C. (2007). The closed door: Credentialized society and immigrant experiences. Canadian Issues. Spring, 63-68.
Khan, S. (2007). Skills international: Linking internationally educated and training professionals with employers in Canada. Canadian Issues, Spring, 142-144.
Khan, S., & Watson, J.C. (2005). The Canadian immigration experiences of Pakistani women: Dreams confront reality. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 18(4), 307-317.
Kilbride, K.M., Tyyska, V., Berman, R., Ali, M. Woungang, I., Guruge, S., Clune, L., Edwards, S. and Cazzola, R. (2009). Reclaiming Voice: Challenges and Opportunities for Immigrant Women Learning English. Canadian Council on Learning.
Kitagawa, K., Krywulak, T., & Watt, D. (2008). Renewing immigration: Towards a convergence and consolidation of Canada’s immigration policies and systems. The Conference Board of Canada.
Klarsfeld, A., 2010. Research on Intersection of Diversity and Work. Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, UK.
Knights, C., Kizilbash, Z. 2010 Summary: Issues, Challenges and Barriers Faced by Immigrant and Culturally Diverse Artists in Toronto and Scarborough. Creative Mosaics.
Konrad, A. M., Prasad, P., Pringle, J., Handbook of Workplace Diversity. 2008. Sage Publications Ltd.
Kukushkin, V., and Watt, D. (2009). Immigrant-Friendly Businesses: Effective Practices for Attracting, Integrating, and Retaining Immigrants in Canadian Workplaces. The Conference Board of Canada.
Kukushkin, V., (2009, October). Immigrant-friendly communities: Making immigration work for employers and other stakeholders. The Conference Board of Canada.
Kunz, J.L. (2005). Orienting newcomers to Canadian society: Social capital and settlement. Social Capital in Action: Thematic Policy Studies, (pp. 52-64) Ottawa, ON: Policy Research Initiative.
Larose, G., and Tillman, G. (2009). Valorizing Immigrants’ Non-Canadian Work Experience. Canadian Council on Learning.
Leong, M. & Collins, L. Bridging the Gap: A framework for Teaching and Transitioning Low Literacy Immigrant Youth. Bow Valley College. Calgary, Alberta. (2007).
Levant, L. (2009). Challenges Facing Immigrant Professional Entering the Canadian Workplace. Bow Valley College, Calgary, Alberta.
Lewkowicz, P. (2008). Institutional innovation for Better Skilled Immigrant Labour Market Integration: A Study of the Toronto Region Immigrant Employment Council (TRIEC). Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
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