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Labour Market Trends

Topics covered include:

  • Aboriginal programs,
  • Urban/rural divide,
  • Labour market outcomes of immigrants and racial minorities,
  • Internal migration,
  • The role of government in overseeing the labour market,
  • and more.

Literature Review

Labour Market Trends – updated April 2019

Advisory Panel on Labour Market Information. (2009). Working Together to Build a Better Labour Market Information System for Canada. Final Report. Gatineau, QC: Secretariat for the Advisory Panel on Labour Market Information.

Alberta Chamber of Resources, (2006). Learning from Experience, Aboriginal Programs in the Resources Industries, Edmonton: Alberta Chamber of Resources.

Alboim, N. and McIsaac, E., (2007). Making the connections: Ottawa’s role in immigrant employment. Institute for Research on Public Policy, 13 (3).

Alboim, N., Finnie, R., and Meng, R. (2005). “The Discounting of Immigrants’ Skills in Canada: Evidence and Policy Recommendations.” IRPP Choices, 11:2.

Association of Canadian Community Colleges, (July 2008). Colleges and Institutes Supporting the Integration of Immigrants into the Canadian Labour Market: Final Project Report. Ottawa, Canada: ACCC.

Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada. (2007). Trends in Higher Education – Volume 1: Enrolment. Ottawa.

Aydemir, A. (2007). The Impact of Immigration on Labour Markets in Canada, Mexico, and the United States. Update on Family and Labour Studies. Catalogue no. 89-001-XIE2007001. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Aydemir, A., and Skuterud, M., (2006). “Explaining the Deteriorating Entry Earnings of Canada’s Immigrant Cohorts: 1966-2000.”, Canadian Journal of Economics 38: 641-72.

Aydemir, A., and Robinson, C., (2006). The Return and Onward Migration Among Working Age Men. Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series. Catalogue no. 11F0019MIE2006273. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Baker, D., Glyn, A., Howell, D. and Schmitt, J. (2005). Labour Market Institutions and Unemployment: Assessment of the Cross-Country Evidence. In David R. Howell (ed), Fighting Unemployment: The Limits of Free-Market Orthodoxy. Oxford: Oxford Press, pp. 72-118.

Bartlett, R., and Lao, H. (2015). Labour Market Assessment 2014. Ottawa, Canada.

Bartlett, R. (2014). Young and Restless. A Look at the State of Youth Employment in Canada. TD Economics.

Batyra, A., de la Croix, D., Pierrard, O., Sneessens, H.R. (2016). Structural changes in the Labor Market and the rise of early retirement in Europe. ResearchGate.

Bell, D., and Benes, K.. May (2012). Transitioning Graduates to Work: Improving the Labour Market Success of Poorly Integrated New Entrants (PINEs) in Canada. Canadian Career Development Foundation CCDF.

Berger, J., (2007). “Why Access Matters.” Revisited: A Review of the Latest Research. Millenium Research Note #6. Montreal, Canada: Millennium Research Program.

Berger, J., Motte, A., and Parkin, A., (2007). The Price of Knowledge 2006-07: Why Access Matters. Montreal: Canada Millenium Scholarship Foundation.

Berard, A.. (2008). “Immigrants in the Hinterlands.” Perspectives on Labour and Income. 9, 1, Catalogue no. 75-001-XIE2008101. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Bernier, J. (2005). The Scope of Federal Labour Standards and Non-Traditional Employment Relationships. Ottawa: Federal Labour Standards Review Commission.

Bernstein, S. (2005). Conceptual Approach to Identifying Workers Most in Need of Labour Standards Protection. Ottawa: Federal Labour Standards Review Commission.

Betcherman, G., Godfrey, M., Puerto, S., Rither, F., & Stavreska, A., (2007). A Review of Interventions to Support Young Workers: Findings of the Youth Employment Inventory. SP Discussion Paper No. 0715-The World Bank.

Bisaillon, M., and Wang, Zhichao D., (2006). Profile of Workplaces under Federal Labour Jurisdiction. Ottawa: Policy Development Division, Labour Program, HRSDC.

Boisvert, D., and Contreras, G. (2015). Economic Impacts and Labour Market Trends 2015. RLI Research.

Bonikowska, A., Green, D. A., and Riddell, W. C.. (2008). Literacy and the Labour Market: Cognitive Skills and Immigrant Earnings. International Adult Literacy Survey (Series). Catalogue no. 89-552-MWE20008020. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Bowlby, G. (2005). Divergence in the Canadian and US Labour Markets, Canadian Public Policy Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 83-92.

Boyd, M. and Schellenberg, G., (2007). Re-accreditation and the occupations of immigrant doctors and engineers. Canadian Social Trends. Cat. No. 11-008. Pp. 2-10.

Brisbois, R., Orton, L., Saunders, R., (April 2008). Connecting Supply and Demand in Canada’s Youth Labour Market. CPRN Research Report.

Burleton, D. (2018). From Sizzle to Fizzle: Examining Ontario’s Jobs Outlook from an Industry Perspective. TD Canada.

Calgary Chamber of Commerce, (October 2009) Update.  Aboriginal Workforce Initiative: Research to Action-Improving Aboriginal Labour Market Outcomes in the Calgary Region. Calgary, Canada: Calgary Chamber of Commerce.

Calonge, D.S., and Shah, M.A. (2016). MOOCs, Graduate Skills Gaps, and Employability: A Qualitative Systematic Review of the Literature. Athabasca University.

Canadian Council on Learning, (September 2009). Securing Prosperity through Canada’s Human Infrastructure: The State of Adult Learning and Workforce Training in Canada. Ottawa, Canada: CCL.

Canadian Council on Learning, (2007). Is it Possible to Accurately Forecast Labour Market Needs? British Columbia Ministry of Advanced Education.

Casey, M. (2011). Canada Labour Market Mocks America’s. Real Time Economics. (February 4, 2011).

Caverly, N., (2006). What Works: Effective Policies and Programs for Aboriginal Peoples of Canada Final Report. North Saanich: Turtle Island Consulting Services Inc.

CCL (Canadian Council on Learning) (January 10, 2007). Is it Possible to Accurately Forecast Labour Market Needs? Ottawa: Canadian Council on Learning.

CEDEFOP. (2018). Future skill needs in Europe: critical labour force trends. CEDEFOP.

Centre for Spatial Economics (2008). “Future Labour Supply and Demand 101: A Guide to Analyzing and Predicting Occupational Trends.”, prepared for the Forum of Labour Market Ministers, Labour Market Information Working Group.

Centre for Spatial Economics (2006) “Consultations on Enhancing Canada’s Labour Market Supply Modeling Capacity at Provincial-Territorial Level: Recommendations Report.” Prepared for the Forum of Labour Market Ministers Working Group.

Charet, J. (2006). The Role of Labour Standards in a Human Capital Strategy. Ottawa: Federal Labour Standards Review Commission.

Chaykowski, R. (2005a). Canadian Workers Most in Need of Labour Standards Protection: A Review of the Nature and Extent of Vulnerability in the Canadian Labour Market and Federal Jurisdiction. Ottawa: Federal Labour Standards Review Commission.

Chaykowski, R. (2005b). Non-Standard Work and Economic Vulnerability. Vulnerable Workers. Ottawa: Canadian Policy Research Networks.

Chueng, L., (2005). Racial Status and Employment Outcomes. Ottawa: Canadian Labour Congress.

Chui, T., Maheux, H., and Tran, K.. (2007). 2006 Census. Immigration and Citizenship, 2006 Census. Catalogue no. 97-557-XIE2006001.

Chui, T., Kustec, S. and Tran, K., (2005). “Becoming Canadian: Intent, process and outcome.” Canadian Social Trends. Catalogue no. 0040411-008. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Cooper, Merrill, (2006). Social Sustainability in Vancouver. Canadian Policy Research Networks.

Corley Consulting Inc. (2007). The Labour Market Framework for Yukon. Edmonton, AB: Whitehorse Chamber of Commerce.

Coulombe, S., and Tremblay, J.-F. (2006). Migration, Human Capital, and Skills Redistribution across the Canadian Provinces.  Working Paper 2006 D-07. Ottawa: Human Resources and Social Development Canada, Skills Research Initiative.

Cross, P., (2011). “How did the 2008-2010 recession and recovery compare with previous cycles?” Canadian Economic Observer, Statistics Canada. Catalogue no.: 11-010-XIB. January, vol. 24. No. 1.

Davos-Klosters, (2014). Matching Skills and Labour Market Needs. Building Social Partnerships for Better Skills and Better Jobs. World Economic Forum.

Debus, A., George, B., Petkov, P., (2008). Help Wanted: Labour Shortage Troubles Deepen for SME’s in 2007. Canadian Federation of Independent Business www.cfib.ca

Decker, R., Haltiwanger, J., Jarmin, R., Miranda, J. (2016). The decline of high-growth entrepreneurship. Athabasca University.

Dehm, J., Taylor, K. (Coords.) (2019). Bibliography on Labor, Human Rights & Inequality. The Rapoport Center.

Deloitte, (2007). Talent Matters: Shaping Talent Strategies in a Changing World, A Study of the Toronto Financial Services Industry Talent Market, Toronto Financial Services Alliance.

Department of Finance. (2014). Jobs Report: The State of the Canadian Labour Market. Canada

Dinc, Y. (2019). Five Potential Diversity, Inclusion Immigrant Integration Trends in the Workforce – 2019. TRIEC.

Douglas, H., (2009). Employment trends meet talent crunch.’ Calgary Herald, 11 October.

Drewes, T., (2010). Postsecondary Education and the Labour Market in Ontario. Toronto: Higher education Quality Council of Ontario.

Drost, H., and Hird, R., (2005). An Introduction to The Canadian Labour Market. Amazon.

Dunn, K., (2005). Estimating and Forecasting Aggregate Retirement Flows in the Canadian Labour Market. Human Resources Social Development Canada.

ECO Canada (2008). Environmental Labour Insights 2008: Employer Perspectives Draft Report. Calgary, Alberta: Author.

ECO Canada. (2007). Labour Market Transition: A Remedy for Labour Shortages in the Environment. Calgary, Alberta: Author.

ECO Canada. (2007). Profile of Canadian Environmental Employment 2007. Calgary, Alberta: Author.

Eichorst, W. and Konle-Seidl, R. (2005). The Interaction of Labour Market Regulation and Labour Market Policies in Welfare State Reform. Bonn, Germany: Institute for the Study of Labour, http://repec.iza.org/dp1718.pdf.

El Achkar, S., (2010). A Companion Guide To Analyzing And Protecting Occupational Trends. Centre For The Study Of Living Standards.

Elezaj, B. (2015). Career Development Center Reformation: Enhancing the Employability of UP Students. Thesis, Rochester Institute of Technology.

Ferrao, V. (2009). The Recent Labour Market in Canada and the United States, Perspectives on Labour and Income. Statistics Canada Catalogue No. 75-001-x (March), pp. 14-18.

Foot, D., Get ready for the small-town boom, The Ottawa Citizen, (October 11, 2008). P. B7

Foot, D. (2007). “Population Aging” in J. Leonard, C. Ragan and F. St-Hilaire (eds), A Canadian Priorities Agenda: Policy Choices to Improve Economic and Social Well-Being (Montreal: Institute for Research on Public Policy,  181-213.

Foot, D., (2007). “Changing Demographics: Marketing and Human Resource Trends in a Global Economy”, in T. Wesson (ed), Canada and the New World Order (Toronto: Captus Press,  238-59.

Foot, D., “The Policy Implications of Provincial Demographics, “ in C. Dunn (ed), Provinces: Canadian Provincial Politics (Peterborough: Broadview, 2006), 435-66.

Foot, D.(2006).“Population Ageing and Sectoral Growth: The Case of the U.K., 2006-2026.” (with R. Gomez), Oxford Journal of Business and Economics, 5:1  85-94.

Foot, D..(December 27, 2006) “A Fortunate Country. The Toronto Star. A25

Foot, D., The boom is fading. The Ottawa Citizen, (October 19, 2006). P. A17.

Foot, D., Open the door, but not just yet. The Globe & Mail, (October 1, 2005). P. A25.

Foot, D.. Boom, (June-October 2005) Bust and Echo in the Workplace.” Vital Aging, Volume 11. Number 2-3, 5.

Galarneau, D., and Morrissette, R. (2008). “Immigrants’ education and required job skills.” Perspectives, Statistics Canada.

Gilmore, J., and LaRochele-Cote, S., (2011). “Inside the labour market downturn.” Perspectives on Labour and Income. Spring 2011, vol. 23, no. 1. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 75-001-XIE.

Girard, M. and Smith, M. R., (2009). Working in a regulated occupation in Canada: An immigrant-native-born comparison. Canadian Labour Market and Skills Researcher Network Working Paper no.44.

Girard, E., and Bauder, H.. (2007). Assimilation and Exclusion of Foreign Trained Engineers in Canada: Inside a Professional Regulatory Organization. Antipode, Vol. 39, Issue 1, pp. 35-53.

Gontkovicovà, B., Milhalcovà, B., Pruzinsky, M. (2016). Youth Unemployment – Current Trend in the Labour Market? Procedia Economics and Finance, Volume 23, Pages 1680-1685.

Government of Canada (2009). Business Invest in Canada: Services.

Government of Yukon, (2010). The Labour Market Framework. Yukon Government.

Human Resource Development Canada. Challenges of an Aging Workforce: An Overview of the Issue. May, 2002. http://labour.hrdc-drhc.gc.ca/worklife/aw-overview-current-practices-en.cfm

Government of Yukon, (2009). Yukon Economic Outlook 2009 Whitehorse, YK: Department of Economic Development.

Government of Yukon/Advanced Education Branch.  (2008). A Labour Market Framework for Yukon, Whitehorse, YK: Government of Yukon.

Goyer, L. (2007). Market Information (LMI): Educational Perspectives. Human Resources  and Social Development Canada (HRSDC), 44 p

Grant, T.. (2010). “Was Canada’s recession ‘average’?” The Globe and Mail Apr. 15.

Greenspon, J. (2019). Visualizing the robustness of Canada’s labour market. Institute for Competativeness & Prosperity.

Griffin Cohen, M. and Pulkingham, J., (2009). Public Policy for Women: The State, Income Security, and Labour Market Issues. Amazon

Gunderson, M. and Krashininsky, H. (2010). Canadian Post-secondary Education Graduates Over the Last 20 Years. Ottawa: Human Resources and Skills Development.

Haddow, R.and Klassen, T., (2006). Partisanship, Globalization, and Canadian Labour Market Policy: Four Provinces in Comparative Perspective. Amazon.

Hango, D., (2010). “Labour Market Experiences of Youth After Leaving School: Exploring the Effect of Educational Pathways Overtime.” Statistics Canada.

Hansen, J. (2007). Education and Early Labour Market Outcomes in Canada. Ottawa: Human Resources and Social Development Canada.

Hays, (2015). Labour Markets in a World of Continuous Change. The Hays Global Skills Index 2015.

Heisz, A.. (2006). Canada’s G es: Socio-economic Conditions in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver. Trends and Conditions in Census Metropolitan Areas. Catalogue no. 89-613-MIE2006010. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Heisz, A. and others. (2005). Labour Markets, Business Activity and Population Growth and Mobility in Canadian CMA’s .Trends and Conditions in Census Metropolitan Areas. Ottawa: Statistic Canada.

Hibbert, M., (2008). Racialized Immigrants In Canada’s Changing Labour Market: an Investigation Of The Effects Of Precarious Work On Black Caribbean Women. Ryerson University. Digital Commons.

Hopkins, S. (2018). The changing labour market and the future of career development. cdanz.

Howell, D. R., (ed.) (2008). Fighting Unemployment: The Limits of Free-Market Orthodoxy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 72-118.

HRSDC (2007). Current and Future Labour Market Shortages in Canada. Human

Human Resources and Skills Development Canada. 2009. Working Together to Build a Better Labour Market Information System. Government of Canada.

Hudes, S. (2019). ‘It’s more bad news’: Report suggests thousands of workers gave up job search in Calgary. Calgary Herald.

Hughes, G. (2019. Desjardins forecasts strong employment market for Montreal in 2019. Montreal Gazette.

Human Resources and Skill Development Canada. (2008). Labour Market Opinion. Government of Canada.

Human Resources and Skill Development Canada. (2007). Business Use of LMI – Survey of Small and Medium Sized Employers on Labour Market Information Needs. Government of Canada.

Indeed, (2016). 16 Trends Shaping the Global Economy (and How You Hire). Indeed.

International Labour Organization. (2018). World Employment Social Outlook. Trends 2018. International Labour Organization.

Janta, B., Ratzmann, N., Ghez, J., Khodyakov, D., Yaqub, O. (2016). Employment and the changing labour market. Rand, Europe.

Janzen, N. (2014). What explains the decline in Canada’s labour force participation rate. RBC Economics research

Jothen, K., (27-10-2008). Labour Market and Human Resource Development Trends: What they mean for the Yukon. Labour Market Framework Symposium 2008.

Kelly, P., Park, S., Lepper, L., (2011). Economic Recession and Immigrant Labour Market Outcomes in Canada. Toronto Immigrant Employment Data Initiative.

Kustec, S. (2012). The role of migrant labour supply in the Canadian labour market. Citizenship and Immigration Canada.

Laffman, J. and Sussman, D., (2007). The Aboriginal Labour Force in Western Canada, in Perspectives on Labour and Income. Ottawa, Canada: Statistics Canada.

Lapointe, M., et al. (2007). Looking ahead: A 10-Year Outlook for the Canadian Labour Market (2006-2015). Ottawa: Human Resources and Social Development Canada.

Lenaerts, K., Beblavy, M., and Fabo, B. (2016). Prospects for utilisation of non-vacancy Internet date in labour market analysis – an overview. Journal of Labor Economics

Lennard, C. (2015). Top Three Trends for the Global Market in 2016. Euromonitor International.

Levanon, G., Maselli, I., Steemers, F. (2018). Global Labor Markert Outlook 2018. Conference Board.

Levanon, G. (2016). The Conference Board Employment Trends Index. The Conference Board of Canada.

Lewis, K. (2016). Thoughts on the impact of Syrian refugee resettlement on the local job market. JVS.

Li, C.G.Gervais, and Duval, A., (2006). The Dynamics of Over-qualification: Canada’s Underemployed University Graduates.” No. 11-621-MIE2006039. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Lin, J. (2008). Trends in employment and wages, 2002 to 2007. Perspectives on Labour and Income, (September), pp. 5-15.

LMICIMT. (2019). Annotated Bibliography – Future of Work. LMICIMT.

Lormer, J. & Company Ltd. (2015). Women and Work: Inequality in the Canadian Labour Market. James Lormer & Company Ltd.

Lowe, G..(2007). Work, Industry and Canadian Society (with H. Krahn and K. Hughes; Thomson Nelson, 5th Edition.

Macklem, P. and Trebilcock, M. (2006). New Labour Standards Compliance Strategies: Corporate Codes of Conduct and Social Labelling Programs. Ottawa: Federal Labour Standards Review Commission.

Macklem, T., and Barillas, F. (2005). Recent Developments in the Canada-US Unemployment Rate Gap: Changing Patterns in Unemployment Incidence and Duration? Canadian Public Policy Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 101-108.

Madsen, P.K. (2005). How Can It Possibly Fly? The Paradox of a Dynamic Labour Market in a Scandinavian Welfare State. In National Identity and a Variety of Capitalism: The Case of Denmark, ed. J.L. Campbell.

Mahoney, J., (2009). ‘More adults getting job training: Statistics Canada says growth was highest among middle-class Canadians in 2008. Globe and Mail, 25 November.

Mallis, E. (2014). Trends in Labour Market developments and policy implications. Ministry of Finance.

Malter, J. (2014). 5 big trends shaking uo the job market. CNN Money.

Maritime Provinces Higher Education Commission. (2007). Surveying the Enrolment Landscape: Factors and Trends in Maritime University Enrolment 2000-2001 to 2006-2007. Volume 5, Number 1, June 2007. Fredericton.

McCloy, U., and Liu, S. (2010). What are the Influencers of Graduate Satisfaction and Labour Market Outcomes of Ontario College Graduates? An analysis of Ontario’s College Graduate Satisfaction Survey Results. Toronto: Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario.

Miner, R. (2010). People without jobs, jobs without people – Ontario’s labour market future. Retrieved on November 20, 2011 from http://www.workforcecoalition.ca/downloads/people-without-jobs-jobs-without-people-final.pdf.

Ministry of Finance (2016). Trends in Labour Market developments and policy implications. Ministry of Finance

Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities (2009). Labour Market Information and Research, Research and Planning Branch.

Mishagina, Natalia, 2012. The State of STEM Labour Markets in Canada Literature Review. CIRANO.

Mitchell, B. (2019). British labour market – rise in self-employment driving growth. Economic Outlook.

Mitchell, C. (2019). 4 Factors That Shape Market Trends. Investopedia.

Morrissette, R. Johnson, A. (2005). Are Good Jobs Disappearing in Canada? Ottawa: Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.

Murray, A.. (June 2010). The State of Knowledge on the Role and Impact of Labour Market Information: A Survey of the International Evidence. Human Resources and Skills Development Canada.

Nasimov, D.A. (2016). The Labor Market: Challenges and Development Trends. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. Volume 9, Issue 16.

OECD (2016). How does Canada compare? Employment Outlook 2016. OECD Employment Outlook .

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Stanford, J. (2005). Revisiting the Flexibility Hypothesis, Canadian Public Policy, Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 109-116.

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Tufts, S., Lemoine, M., Phan, M., Kelly, P., Lo, L., Preston, V., Shields, J.. (2010). What Are The Labour Market Outcomes For Immigrants Planning To Work In Regulated And Unregulated Occupations. Toronto Immigrant Employment Data Institute.

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Turpin, T. (2015). Five trends that ill shape the labour market landscape in Canada this year. National Post.

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Zhang, H., and Smith, M.. (2010). Exposure to global markets, internal labour markets, and worker compensation: Evidence from Canadian Micro-data. Canadian Journal of Sociology, 35: 371-398.

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