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Le numéro d’hiver du magazine Careering met en lumière les états d’esprit en matière de carrière

Dans ce numéro du magazine Careering, nous explorons les nombreuses facettes des états d’esprit de carrière. Comme il n’existe pas une seule définition de ce terme dans le domaine du développement de carrière au Canada, nous avons laissé la porte ouverte à l’interprétation, et ce qui en résulte est fascinant.

Les auteurs ont lié ce concept à différents thèmes, comme l’art, l’exploration, les mentalités sociales, les croyances limitantes, à des états d’esprit fixes et de croissance, la pensée conceptuelle et le retour au travail.

Ils nous parlent aussi de la façon dont ils utilisent le concept des états d’esprit de carrière pour soutenir les étudiants, depuis les premières années d’école jusqu’aux études supérieures, et comment il peut s’appliquer aux nouveaux arrivants au Canada, au domaine du développement de carrière, ainsi qu’aux demandeurs d’emploi à toutes les étapes de leur carrière. 

Ce numéro comprend ces articles : 

Publié par le CERIC, Careering est le magazine canadien des professionnels en développement de carrière. Il est publié trois fois l’an et inclut certains articles en français. Inscrivez-vous pour recevoir votre copie gratuite. Vous pouvez également accéder aux anciens numéros gratuitement en ligne.  

 Le thème du numéro printemps-été 2022 du magazine Careering sera publié en février. Consultez le site ceric.ca/fr/magazine-careering pour connaître l’appel de propositions d’articles ou inscrivez-vous au bulletin gratuit OrientAction en bref du CERIC pour recevoir les dernières actualités. 

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Une étude canadienne révèle que les cadres supérieurs canadiens sont confrontés à des problèmes de recrutement et de compétences

La majorité des cadres supérieurs canadiens (81 %) ont de la difficulté à trouver des candidats possédant les compétences adéquates pour pourvoir les postes vacants et 78 % conviennent qu’il existe un écart de compétences dans leur secteur d’activité respectif, mais peu d’entre eux ont fait appel à l’expertise de professionnels du développement de carrière pour relever les défis du recrutement et du maintien en poste, selon une enquête nationale récemment menée par Environics pour le CERIC*.

Pour Le développement de carrière en milieu de travail : Sondage des entreprises canadiennes, le CERIC a sondé 500 cadres supérieurs canadiens dans plus de 11 secteurs d’activité, notamment les services, la vente au détail, l’accueil, la construction et la fabrication. Le sondage met au jour l’opinion actuelle des organisations canadiennes concernant les lacunes en matière de compétences et de talents sur le marché du travail; l’embauche de membres issus de groupes sous-représentés dans le cadre de stratégies pour favoriser l’équité, la diversité et l’inclusion, ainsi que l’importance d’investir dans le développement de carrière. Les résultats du sondage du CERIC sont également comparés avec ceux de 2013 afin d’assurer le suivi des changements survenus au cours des huit dernières années.

Principaux défis pour les entreprises canadiennes

Dans ce contexte pandémique fluide et l’incertitude sous-jacente, la difficulté de trouver de jeunes talents qualifiés s’est accentuée au cours des huit dernières années. Les cinq principaux défis auxquels font face les employeurs sont les suivants :

  1. une pénurie de main-d’œuvre qualifiée (75 % contre 68 % en 2013);
  2. la recherche de jeunes travailleurs (66 % contre 51 % en 2013);
  3. les problèmes liés à la chaîne d’approvisionnement (70 %);
  4. l’état général de l’économie (69 % contre 77 % en 2013);
  5. la réglementation et la bureaucratie (52 % contre 63 % en 2013).

Tandis que les employeurs de l’Ontario étaient les moins susceptibles de faire face à une pénurie de main-d’œuvre qualifiée en 2013, ils sont maintenant les plus sujets à être touchés par cette difficulté, suivis par ceux du Québec et des Prairies.

Recrutement et maintien en poste des talents

Quatre-vingt-un pour cent des cadres supérieurs canadiens ont de la difficulté à trouver des candidats possédant les compétences adéquates pour pourvoir les postes vacants dans leur entreprise – contre 70 % en 2013. Les éléments suivants présentent également une difficulté :

  • la recherche de candidats fiables ayant une bonne éthique de travail (29 %);
  • un marché du travail compétitif au sein de leur secteur d’activité respectif (23 %).

Tandis que l’importance du curriculum vitæ n’a pas beaucoup changé depuis 2013, les cadres supérieurs trouvent que l’empreinte en ligne d’un employé potentiel est de plus en plus importante (63 % contre 52 % en 2013).

Malgré l’importance croissante de l’équité, de la diversité et de l’inclusion, on constate seulement une légère augmentation de la proportion des cadres supérieurs qui s’efforcent de personnaliser leurs méthodes de recrutement pour attirer et atteindre des membres de groupes sous-représentés (51 % contre 46 % en 2013).

Regard concret sur les compétences générales

Les cadres supérieurs qui éprouvent plus de difficultés à conserver leurs employés (72 %) constatent plus souvent un écart de compétences dans leur secteur d’activité (42 %) et trouvent qu’il est de plus en plus difficile de recruter des candidats possédant les compétences générales qu’ils jugent importantes (40 %). Si une attitude positive (29%) et de bonnes aptitudes à communiquer (22%) continuent d’être considérées comme les deux compétences générales les plus importantes pour les employeurs potentiels, l’importance de la fiabilité a quant à elle augmenté de plus de 100 % depuis 2013.

Le sondage a révélé que les cadres supérieurs sont plus susceptibles d’embaucher une personne appropriée possédant des compétences générales et de lui offrir une formation (78 %).

Investir dans le développement de carrière pour combler l’écart de compétences

Tandis que 73 % des employeurs interrogés reconnaissent leur responsabilité d’offrir des programmes de gestion de carrière à leurs employés, seuls 27 % d’entre eux le font et 45 % ne connaissaient pas le rôle des professionnels du développement de carrière avant de répondre à ce sondage.

« Les cadres supérieurs canadiens ont l’occasion unique d’aider leurs employés à prendre en charge leur carrière, et ce, en investissant dans des stratégies de développement axées sur la détermination de leurs points forts et d’objectifs de carrière précis qui peuvent accroître leur satisfaction au travail, dit André Raymond, CRHA, Université Laval et président du conseil d’administration.

Les résultats de ce sondage seront dévoilés lors d’un débat d’experts de l’industrie lors du congrès Cannexus du CERIC, le 24 janvier à 13 h 15 (heure de l’Est).

*Du 18 novembre au 17 décembre 2021, Environics a mené un sondage téléphonique national auprès d’employés de niveau supérieur de 501 entreprises canadiennes choisies au hasard dans tout le pays. La marge d’erreur est de ± 4,4 points de pourcentage, au niveau de confiance standard de 95 %.

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Webinar Series (en anglais) : Self-Employed Career Practitioners: Tools and Strategies to Better Manage Your Finances

Date: Thursdays, May 20, 27, June 3, 2021

Presenter: Pamela George

Cost: Full Series VRA-Member: $119 | Full Series Non VRA-Member: $159

All registered participants will receive a password-protected video recording of each session. Recordings will remain available for ONE MONTH after the final webinar of the series.

Individual certificates of attendance will be provided to all registered participants who attend the webinars LIVE.

Overview

Often career practitioners, like many Canadians, have very little understanding of finances, how credit works, and of the potential impact on their financial well-being. While we see a shift in our practice and in the workforce with more and more people self-employed, it becomes more important, especially in light of the current pandemic, to educate ourselves, and the clients we serve, on financial literacy. This new webinar series will help career practitioners who are self-employed to enhance their learning on current personal financial management practices.

Webinar #1: How to Set up and Organize Your Finances for Success
Thursday, May 20, 2021 | 12:00 pm – 1:00 pm ET

  • How to plan for irregular income
  • How to pay yourself a consistent salary
  • How to manage taxes
  • Banking: accounts for the self-employed
  • Build a business budget

Participants will learn how to plan for those months when income is low, but expenses remain the same or increase.

Webinar #2: BUDGETING – How to Build a Personal Budget
Thursday, May 27, 2021 | 12:00 pm – 1:00 pm ET

  • Learn the relevance and importance of a balanced budget and its place in managing your finances
  • Learn the 5 major categories that need to be in your budget and how much of your income needs to be allocated to each category
  • Build your own budget using a customized template

For this webinar, participants will be required to know their estimated income and personal expenses, and have a calculator, pen and paper.

Webinar #3: Type of Savings and How to Pay off Debts
Thursday, June 3, 2021 | 12:00 pm – 1:00 pm ET

  • Learn the different types of savings and its relevance to successful financial management
  • Learn the 7 ways to pay off debts and how to determine which one is best for you
  • Understand how retirement is different for the self-employed and why you need to plan differently
  • Understand the importance of wealth protection

Participants will learn how to save for financial success and also learn the many ways that they can pay off debt and how to determine which one is best for them. 

Throughout her career, Pamela George has been steadfastly committed to one overarching goal: To educate and empower Canadians, so they may regain control of their finances and start living the life they want. Whether she is counselling individuals, couples, families, solopreneurs, entrepreneurs or groups, Pamela has successfully helped thousands of people pay off debt, build budgets and save for the future so they can start living their dreams.

 

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The Changing World of Work

What occupations and skills are most at risk with automation – and which will remain in demand

By Trudy Parsons 

 

A report released by the World Economic Forum – Future of Jobs Report – shares a popular estimate, claiming 65% of children who are just entering primary school will work in new job types that do not yet exist. Imagine how this world of work will evolve for these young people who have grown up in a world where smart technology has been an integral part of their lives. Now consider the impact and implications for workers who have a long history of being active in the labour market. What adjustments will they need to make to ensure ongoing and active employment? New skills, new knowledge, and adaptable behaviours will be the foundation on which workers will propel into the future of work. So, let’s consider what that might look like in 2025 and beyond.

Automation, the human worker’s assistant?

Automation can assist human workers, allowing them to focus on more strategic and creative tasks as well as tasks that never existed before – tasks that will be created in an automated future. According to The Talented Mr. Robot – Impact of Automation on Canada’s Workforce, a report by the Brookfield Institute, 42% of the Canadian labour force is at a high risk of being affected by automation over the next 10-20 years. Jobs that are most at risk include routine work (physical and cognitive) such as retail salespeople, administrative assistants, food counter attendants, cashiers, and transport truck drivers. We see this today. Your next order at McDonald’s will be through its automated kiosks, while a visit to Lowe’s may introduce you to OSHbot, a retail service robot that can guide you to the item you are looking for and even help staff with inventory scanning.

While routine, methodical tasks will be replaced through automation, it is important to note that automation has not yet mastered the human mind. Jobs that fall into the routine stream will go by the wayside, while those that require creativity, negotiation, persuasion and care for others will be less impacted. The Brookfield Institute report offers insight into Canadian occupations and the probability of being affected by automation.

 

The occupations at a high risk of being affected by automation with the most employees are:

  • Retail salespersons, 92% probability of automation and more than 656,000 employees,
  • Administrative assistants, 96% probability of automation and nearly 329,000 employees,
  • Food counter attendants and kitchen helpers, 91.5% probability of automation and nearly 313,000 employees,
  • Cashiers, 97% probability of automation and nearly 309,000 employees, and
  • Transport truck drivers, 79% probability of automation and nearly 262,000 employees.

 

Those offering lower risk of impact due to automation include:

  • Retail and wholesale trade managers, 20.5% probability of automation and more than 363,000 employees,
  • Registered nurses (psychiatric included), 0.9% probability of automation and more than 291,000 employees,
  • Elementary and kindergarten teachers, 0.4% probability of automation and more than 271,000 employees,
  • Early childhood educators and assistants, 0.7% probability of automation and nearly 188,000 employees, and
  • Secondary school teachers, 0.8% probability of automation and nearly 174,000 employees.

 

When we think about the differences in these occupations, we reflect on those at lower risk requiring cognitive skills, people management, and creativity. In looking to the future and thinking about the skills that will be foundational to remain competitive in the labour market, we need to consider the importance of adaptability and resiliency.

According to Fast Company, the top six skills areas for the future of work include:

  • Technology and computational thinking
  • Caregiving
  • Social intelligence & new media literacy
  • Lifelong learning
  • Adaptability & business acumen

 

The reality is our work and its demand for skills and knowledge has evolved throughout history, and this evolution will only continue. We can’t predict the future with certainty, nor can we know today all the job options that will be available for the graduating class of 2025. What we do know is that career pathways will continue along a spectrum that requires exploration, consideration, and a realization that change is inevitable and we will need to adapt, be resilient, and never lose our desire to learn.

 

AUTHOR BIO

Trudy Parsons is the Executive Vice President with MDB Insight, a national economic development consultancy that promotes the alignment of economic and workforce planning to create stronger pathways to employment. She brings over 20 years of experience working with local community to strengthen the connection between people and jobs.

 

REFERENCES

Brookfield Institute. (2016). The Talented Mr. Robot: The Impact of Automation on Canada’s Workforce. Toronto: Lamb, Creig. Retrieved from http://brookfieldinstitute.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/TalentedMrRobot_BIIE-1.pdf

Harvard University. (2017, May 25). Facebook Founder Mark Zuckerberg Commencement Address. | Harvard Commencement 2017. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BmYv8XGl-YU&feature=youtu.be.

Moran, Gwen. (2016, March 31). These Will Be The Top Jobs In 2025 (And The Skills You’ll Need To Get Them). Fast Company. Retrieved from https://www.fastcompany.com/3058422/these-will-be-the-top-jobs-in-2025-and-the-skills-youll-need-to-get-them

World Economic Forum. (2016). The Future of Jobs: Employment, Skills and Workforce Strategy for the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Retrieved from http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Future_of_Jobs.pdf

Facebook Founder Mark Zuckerberg Commencement Address | Harvard Commencement 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BmYv8XGl-YU&feature=youtu.be; Retrieved 11-23-17

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Principles in Action: Framing Career Development as a Lifelong Process

By Paula Wischoff Yerama

With a goal of bringing greater clarity and consistency to our national conversations about career development, CERIC developed a set of Guiding Principles of Career Development that have been enthusiastically embraced across Canada. These eight Guiding Principles are intended as a starting point to inform discussions with clients, employers, funders, policymakers and families.
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Career Briefs

CERIC launching three new publications for K-12

Educators and counsellors working with students in kindergarten to grade 12 will benefit from three new research-based resources published by CERIC that will be launching at the Cannexus18 National Career Development Conference in January.

Computing Disciplines: A Quick Guide for Prospective Students and Career Advisors was developed by an international research team led by Calgary’s Mount Royal University and aims to explain the fast-changing field of computing and to inform decision-making around related education and career paths.

Bridging Two Worlds: Supporting Newcomer and Refugee Youth assists schools to become trauma-informed and deliver culturally responsive curriculum that helps students make the connection between the classroom, career development and their futures. This resource has emerged from a three-year, multi-city, multi-province Canadian research program examining the integration of newcomer and refugee youth, led by the University of Winnipeg.

The Early Years: Career Development for Young Children – a Guide for Educators and a Guide for Parents/Guardians – are the result of Memorial University research examining the career development process of young children, aged 3 to 8, and include practical strategies for how teachers and parents can positively influence this process.

All publications are available for free download and Bridging Two Worlds and The Early Years are also available for purchase in print.

For more information, go to ceric.ca/publications.

 

Careers in the curriculum. What works?

A new report from the UK’s The Careers & Enterprise Company examines teaching career development as part of the curriculum, which it describes as a range of interventions that allow students to encounter career learning as part of their everyday classes.

The review looks at over 100 UK and international studies published in the last 20 years and identifies six actions that schools can take to optimize the impact of careers in the curriculum: vision and leadership; a well-designed curriculum; a strong focus on the learning process; trained staff capable of delivering careers in the curriculum; engagement of school partners; and delivering consistency and volume.

In addition, this report provides recommendations for developing the evidence base and underlines the need for further high-quality and better co-ordinated research efforts.

To read the full report, visit careersandenterprise.co.uk.

 

Labour and education: Key results from Canada’s 2016 Census

Statistics Canada’s latest 2016 Census release looks at the evolution of working patterns among Canadians and identifies changes that create new challenges and opportunities – such as population aging, immigration and automation technologies – as well as draws a portrait of the changing face of education in Canada and how Canadians are equipping themselves through education for the jobs of today.

Just a few of the key findings:
• More than half (54.0%) of Canadians have college or university education and Canada has the highest proportion of college graduates among OECD countries.
• A larger population of people aged 65 and older are working. Nearly one in five Canadians aged 65 and over reported working at some point during 2015, which is almost double the proportion compared to 1995.
• Canada’s labour force has been growing in large part due to increased immigration, with immigrants accounting for 23.8% of the labour force in 2016, up from 21.2% in 2006.

For more information on the 2016 Census, go to statcan.gc.ca.

 

NCDA and CERIC partner to offer webinar series on non-traditional career paths

CERIC is partnering with the US-based National Career Development Association (NCDA) for the first time to jointly offer webinars and will launch with a three-part series – Preparing Your Clients to Successfully Embrace a Non-Traditional, Entrepreneurial Career Path with Ron Elsdon, starting February 14, 2018.
In today’s work world and that of the future we can create meaningful and rewarding careers without depending on conventional employment where the nature of our work is defined by others.

Estimates show more than 25% of the working-age population engaging through non-traditional paths, and this is growing.
Participants will learn why, when and how creating an inspiring and practical non-traditional, entrepreneurial career path can be valuable to your clients and to you.

To learn more and register, go to ceric.ca/webinars.

 

Canada’s Top 100 Employers (2018) released

Each fall, the national Canada’s Top 100 Employers competition determines which employers lead their industries in offering exceptional workplaces for their employees based on eight criteria: Physical Workplace; Work Atmosphere & Social; Health, Financial & Family Benefits; Vacation & Time Off; Employee Communications; Performance Management; Training & Skills Development; and Community Involvement.

Several new organizations join the ranks every year while many others repeat as the best in their industry. There are 16 new names for 2018, as small as Médecins Sans Frontières / Doctors Without Borders (MSF) Canada with 265 employees, and as big as Alberta Health Services with 45,975.

Throughout the year, regional top employer lists as well as special interest employer lists are also published, including Canada’s Top Employers for Young People, Canada’s Best Diversity Employers and Canada’s Top Family-Friendly Employers.

For more details, go to canadastop100.com/national.

 

New CERIC literature searches explore emerging issues in career development

CERIC has recently released five new literature searches, providing comprehensive listings of key research in several emerging areas of career development. The latest literature searches include: Changing Workplace, Intersection of Diversity & Inclusion, Volunteerism, Social Enterprise, and Corporate Social Responsibility.

A total of 42 literature searches is now available, covering such topics as Career Development Theory and Career Management Models, Economic Benefits of Career Guidance, Parental Involvement in Career Development, Labour Market Trends, Mental Health Issues in the Workplace, and more.

As a student, academic or practitioner in the field, literature searches are helpful resources if you are researching the latest thinking or proven best practices. They are also valuable if you are considering a submission to CERIC for project partnership funding in order to gain an overview of major work already done in your area of interest.

To access the literature searches, visit ceric.ca/literature-searches.

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10 Questions for Chief Robert Joseph

Chief Dr Robert Joseph, OBC, is a true peace-builder whose life and work are examples of his personal commitment. A Hereditary Chief of the Gwawaenuk First Nation, Chief Joseph has dedicated his life to bridging the differences brought about by intolerance, lack of understanding and racism at home and abroad. Chief Joseph is currently the Ambassador for Reconciliation Canada, a member of the National Assembly of First Nations Elders Council and an honourary witness to Canada’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC). As Chair of the Native American Leadership Alliance for Peace and Reconciliation, and Ambassador for Peace and Reconciliation with the Interreligious and International Federation for World Peace (IFWP), Chief Joseph has sat with the leaders of South Africa, Israel, Japan, South Korea, Mongolia and Washington to learn from and share his understanding of faith,hope, healing and reconciliation.

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Hot Links | 2025: Future of Work

21 Jobs of the Future

Ethical Sourcing Officer, Personal Memory Curator, Digital Tailor… this 2017 report from the Cognizant’s Center for the Future of Work proposes 21 new jobs that will emerge over the next 10 years and that it says will become cornerstones of the future of work.

cognizant.com/whitepapers

 

New World of Work

A new podcast series from the McKinsey Global Institute explores how technologies like automation, robotics and artificial intelligence are shaping how we work, where we work, and the skills we need to work.

mckinsey.com/global-themes


What key competencies are needed In the digital age?

Published by Deloitte in 2017, this report takes a look at the competencies necessary to adjust to the digital age as well as the impact on education and the training system, the labour market and what it means for companies.

deloitte.com

 

Social and Solidarity Economy and the Future of Work

Released in July 2017 by the International Centre for Training (ICT), the report looks at key drivers and trends in the future of work, examines the contributions of social and solidarity economy enterprises and organizations, and provides policy recommendations.

socioeco.org

 

Robots vs Jobs

Often cited is a 2013 report by Oxford University said that 47% of jobs are at risk from automation. But a more recent report by the OECD says only 9% of jobs are under serious threat. TVO’s The Agenda asks: is automation a realistic threat?

tvo.org

 

The Digital Talent Gap: Are Companies Doing Enough?

In this report released by the Capgemini Digital Transformation Institute in November 2017, experts look at the definition of digital talent and what it encompasses (hard digital skills, soft digital skills and digital roles created as a result of digital transformation) and examine the causes of the widening gap.

capgemini.com

 

Future of Work

In this free research-based webinar recording offered by Challenge Factory, you will learn more on the five following trends: demographics & legacy, shift career ownership, impact of the freelance economy, emergence of platforms and automation.

centreforcareerinnovation.com

 

The Future of Skills: Employment in 2030

Published in 2017 by Nesta and Oxford Martin School, this report looks at the drivers of change and the interactions that are expected to shape industry structures and labour markets in 2030.

nesta.org

 

Workforce of the Future: The Competing Forces Shaping 2030

In this report released in 2017 by PwC, you will learn more about the forces shaping the future and the way it will affect the way we work by 2030 but also how it will have an impact on the workforce and types of jobs that will be available.

pwc.com

 

AI and the Future of Work

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the Initiative on the Digital Economy (IDE) hosted a conference in November 2017, which brought together industry, academia, economists and visionaries for an open dialogue about AI’s impact. Watch session highlights.

futureofwork.mit.edu/videos

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How Do We Prepare Our Graduates to Prepare for Tomorrow?

Tips for students, career professionals, employers and faculty on how to respond to disruption

By Philip D. Gardner

 

The next wave of technological innovation is already upon us. Susskind and Susskind (2017) have studied the future of the professions and offer a cautionary tale of what the future holds. All fields face disruption from various types of technology driven by accelerating advances in artificial intelligence, cognitive systems and data analytics. As technology pushes forward, the educated worker now faces challenges, largely avoided up to this point. How do we prepare our post-secondary graduates to prepare for a life of constant disruption, complete with job interruptions, shifting skill demands, and new approaches to sustaining a healthy career?

Disruption as a way of life

Friedman (2016) explains the hollowing out of jobs as a process of pulling job tasks apart where high-value elements are skilled up (requiring more advanced abilities) and low-value elements are skilled down (requiring lower abilities), or are eliminated by technology. Technology will handle more and more tasks associated with popular jobs sought by university and college students, eliminating the need for their talents (Susskind and Susskind, 2017).  David Mindell (2015) of Massachusetts Institute of Technology emphasizes the impact of advancing technologies on our workplaces this way:

“Change the technology and you change the task, and you change the nature of the worker – in fact you change the entire population of people who can operate a system.”

In other words, technological adoption changes the composition of the tasks in a job that triggers a need for a different type of person. As the type of workers changes in an organization, the organization reshapes itself, thus changing the connections within systems where they reside.

Sustaining one’s professional career depends on the individual’s ability to identify, and agility to adapt to, technological forces that are reshaping their jobs. These forces affect all of students, career professionals, employers and faculty alike.

Responding to disruption

Students

  • Need to engage in a variety of learning environments, mostly outside the traditional classroom, to gain insights in adapting learning in new situations.
  • Will be required to have professional work experience prior to their final year. These experiences will have to be longer in duration (8 to 12 months) in order to begin to develop, apply and understand the skills, competencies and work behaviours required for success. Schools in Canada already experiment with longer employment terms with the University of Toronto’s Professional Year program, for example.
  • Must understand that recruiting practices are changing quickly and they will have to adjust to more social media interactions, online assessments, and third-party services (online interviewing) before the first face-to-face meeting with an organization’s representative.
  • Must shift their mindset to embrace the interconnection of academic and professional success and to consciously acknowledge both upon the first day of class.
  • From the liberal arts need to integrate their experiences through reflection, crafting their personal legend (story) that captures the interest of employers.

 

Career professionals

  • Face technological advances (which reduce head count and limit budget growth) that will eliminate many tasks currently performed, including event planning, scheduling and co-ordinating the interface between student and employer.
  • Accept that affective computing will provide automated (sophisticated AI software plus robotics) “trusted advisors” that can serve as basic career advisors.
  • Will coach and train other academic staff (academic advisors, faculty and other academic support services) to be front-line career agents.
  • Will assist students in learning how to handle new recruiting strategies adopted by employers and provide coaching on how to build social relationships that advance their career prospects.
  • Serve as the key “integrators” of the student experience, working with students to weave their total post-secondary experience into whole cloth and craft one’s personal story.
  • Must adjust their approach to career counselling as described in Pryor and Bright’s Chaos Theory of Careers.

 

Employers

  • Will begin using more sophisticated applicant tracking systems that integrate new campus hiring with experienced hiring.
  • Will adopt more neurologically-based assessment (such as gaming) to assemble talent pools linked more to organizational fit than selection-based criteria such as academic major or limiting selection from only core schools. Work attitudes and behaviours will trump skills which employers now assume that universities are addressing.
  • Will invite younger students to engage with the organization in a variety of ways, including internships.
  • Will employ new strategies to avoid the fees requested by many universities to attend career fairs, connect with students through classes and information sessions, and obtain profile information.
  • Expect to interface directly with students without university of college representatives serving as gatekeepers or intermediaries.

 

Faculty

  • Have to set the campus culture that success is a combination of academic rigour and professional development.
  • Must validate student experiences by recognizing them and acknowledging them in their classes.
  • Encourage and support student participation in work-related experiences, especially faculty in the liberal arts.
  • Failure to provide a healthy climate for professional development may face declining interest in their disciplines and face students struggling to transition, even in very strong labour markets.

 

AUTHOR BIO

Philip D. Gardner is Director of the Collegiate Employment Research Institute at Michigan State University. His major areas of research include the transition from college to work, early socialization and career progression in the workplace, workforce readiness, and other areas related to college student studies. MSU’s nationally recognized annual college labour market study is done under his direction each fall.

 

References

Friedman, T. L. (2016). Thank you for being late: An optimist’s guide to thriving in the age of accelerations. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Mindell, D. A. (2015). Our robots, ourselves: Robotics and the myths of autonomy. New York: Viking.

Pryor, R., & Bright, J. (2011). The chaos theory of careers: A new perspective on working in the twenty-first century. New York: Routledge.

Susskind, R. and Susskind, D. (2017). The future of the professions: How technology will transform the work of human experts. United Kingdom: Oxford Press.

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Not Every Computer-Related Job Is IT

Understanding computing disciplines to help advisors guide students in choosing the right career path

By Janet Miller and Randy Connolly

 

When you are out at a party, meeting new people, how do you answer the question “What do you do?”  Do you respond with a job title, or do you describe some of the functions of your work?  Do you try to describe the impact of your responsibilities, or do you talk about the education or training that led you into this career? In some career sectors, it can be especially difficult to answer this question in a way that provides a satisfying answer. Computing is one of those sectors.

 

Explaining the computing sector to better advise for computer-related careers

Jobs like Software Developer or Gaming and Multimedia Specialist might sound familiar, but when we are asked to really describe what these people do, many career advisors struggle to have clear answers about the tasks of the job and the recommended post-secondary training. Answering the question “What do you do?” gets even more uncertain when we are talking about fields like bioinformatics, IT security or computational science. To make it even more complicated, the field of computing has expanded rapidly over the past decade, and we know that many current computing students will take on jobs that do not even exist today. Despite this complexity and breadth, online career counselling resources typically treat computing as a single discipline, usually labelled Computer Science. Research and practice have shown that computer science programs are often the first to be recommended to prospective students, and based on the nearly 50% attrition rate reported by these programs (Beaufouef & Mason, 2005; Chen & Soldner, 2013), we know that this is not the best fit for all students interested in computing.

This is similar to working with a student who is interested in the food and beverage industry but who is only exploring careers related to cooking. With support from a knowledgeable advisor, this prospective student may also consider food and beverage-related marketing, business administration, bartending, front-of-house service work, sales, construction, skilled trades, accounting or interior design. Helping this student to engage in study at an applied institute for culinary training might be the best fit, or alternatively, a university degree program focused on public relations and communication skills might be more in line with their actual industry-related interests.

Despite the fact that computer-related careers are the paradigmatic work of the 21st century, surprisingly little is known about the range of work people can do within this field. Perceptions of computing are especially shaped by stereotypical portrayals in film and television (insert mental picture of cubical work or darkened basements, of hackers and programming geeks, here). Constraints we face as career advisors when working to support career exploration in the computing disciplines include these media-reinforced clichés, and access to only generalized information about this complex and growing field.

 

Distinct sub-disciplines, sub-specialties and numerous possible educational paths

The Association of Computing Machinery (ACM) has acknowledged the increasing complexity of computing by articulating five distinct disciplines within computing: computer science (CS), information systems (IS), software engineering (SE), computer engineering (CE) and information technology (IT). These different sub-disciplines are carefully described in their own ACM Curriculum Recommendations. These five disciplines in turn have a number of sub-specialities that have resulted in dozens of possible educational paths for students interested in computing.

Our research with computing and non-computing undergraduates in three different countries indicated that computing students had the most difficulty making the distinction between IT and IS-related tasks, and that students need to understand that the CS field had less to do with software development than they might think. We concluded that we needed to provide students with more information about the SE role in designing, developing and implementing software, and help students to see CS as more focused on the theoretical foundations of information and computation.

With the generous support of CERIC project partner funding, we developed a free research-informed publication designed to support career exploration into the computing disciplines. Computing Disciplines: A Quick Guide for Prospective Students and Career Advisors describes the five computing disciplines in a way that we think will be meaningful to prospective students, parents and career advisors.

Each discipline is outlined through a brief description, and then we provide an “outside view” of the discipline (more of what we might say as a way of introducing ourselves at a party), and an “inside view” of what this area of work might involve. We have made the Quick Guide visual and invite prospective students to see themselves doing the tasks associated with each kind of career. The diagrams for each area visually describe its tendency towards either the applied or the theoretical aspects of computing – a perspective that easily connects with theories of personality and measure of career interests. Career practitioners can review “on-the-job tasks” with interested students, as well as typical core courses that the student could expect to encounter in college or university. Working backwards from job titles, career advisors can help students to consider pathways available to reach that goal. We understand that for students, their initial understanding of the different computing disciplines may play a large role in whether or not they decide to register in a computing program. The guide assists students to create a narrative of their career path that goes beyond the typical “computer science” label.

Our hope is that this resource will be a pleasure to read, easy to work with, and effective for supporting exploration into the diverse world of computing. For more information on the guide or to access a free download, please visit ceric.ca/computing.

 

AUTHOR BIOS

Dr Janet Miller is a Counselling Psychologist with expertise in post-secondary mental health issues and personal development. She celebrates career planning as encompassing all aspects of life, learning and work, and much of her research focuses on career, leadership and student success. In addition to working at Mount Royal University for nearly 20 years, she is the Editor of Kaleidoscope, a Certified Trainer with the Centre for Suicide Prevention and an accomplished keynote speaker. She can be reached at janet.miller@hotmail.com.

 

Randy Connolly has been teaching at Mount Royal University since 1997. He is the author of three textbooks, the most recent of which is Fundamentals of Web Development, Second Edition, used by thousands of students at over 100 universities worldwide. He has also authored 34 peer-reviewed papers and given over 20 international research presentations. He is on the editorial boards of the two main journals for computing education (ACM Transaction on Computing Education and ACM Inroads). He can be reached at rconnolly@mtroyal.ca.

 

REFERENCES

ACM/IEEE-CS (2010). “IS 2010 Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate Degree Programs in Information Systems”. Accessed on May 13, 2016 from http://www.acm.org/education/curricula/IS%202010%20ACM%20final.pdf

ACM/IEEE- CS (2013). “Computer Science Curricular 2013: Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate Degree Programs”. Accessed on July 09, 2017 from https://www.acm.org/education/CS2013-final- report.pdf

ACM/IEEE- CS (2014). “Software Engineering Curricular 2017: Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate Degree Programs in Software Engineering”. Accessed on July 07, 2017 from http://www.acm.org/binaries/content/assets/education/se2014.pdf

ACM/IEEE (2016). “Computer Engineering Curricula 2016: Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate Degree Programs in Computer Engineering”. Accessed on July 07, 2017 from https://www.acm.org/binaries/content/assets/education/ce2016-final-report.pdf

ACM/IEEE- CS (2017). “Information Technology Curricular 2017: Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate Degree Programs in Information Technology”. Accessed on July 07, 2017 from http://www.acm.org/binaries/content/assets/education/it2017v085.pdf

Beaubouef, T., & Mason, J. (2005). “Why the high attrition rate for computer science students: Some thoughts and observations”. Inroads – The SIGCSE Bulletin, 37(2), 103-106.

Chen, X., & Soldner, M. (2013). “STEM Attrition: College students’ paths into and out of STEM fields”.  Statistical Analysis Report.  U.S. Department of Education, National Centre for Education Statistics: Washington, DC.

Connolly, R., Miller, J., Uzoka, F. M., et al (2016). “Red Fish, Blue Fish: Reexamining Students’ Understanding of the Computing Disciplines”. In Proceedings of the 17th Annual Conference on Information Technology Education. (pp. 115-120). ACM.

Uzoka, F. M., Connolly, R., Schroeder, M., Khemka, N., & Miller, J. (2013). “Computing is not a rock band: student understanding of the computing disciplines”. In Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM SIGITE conference on Information technology education.

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