L’eurocentrisme comme grille d’analyse de sa pratique professionnelle

Par David Baril

Pour les intervenants et intervenantes en développement de carrière, l’autoréflexion contribue sans contredit au maintien d’une pratique professionnelle saine. Si cette pratique renvoie généralement à une analyse pluridimensionnelle de l’expérience subjective, elle porte rarement sur l’influence du social dans notre manière d’intervenir. Pourtant, notre vision du monde et du développement de carrière, laquelle est issue d’une société ayant sa propre culture et sa propre histoire, a un effet certain sur notre manière de concevoir les problèmes d’orientation et d’y répondre. Pour la chercheuse Lisa Flores, l’intervention en développement de carrière en Amérique du Nord s’est construite historiquement autour de six grands principes rattachés à ce qu’elle nomme l’eurocentrisme. Si ces principes étaient appropriés dans une économie donnée (fordisme) et auprès d’une population donnée (caucasiens de la classe moyenne), les mobiliser aujourd’hui peut induire des biais dans notre manière d’intervenir. En voici une brève synthèse.

L’universalité

Il s’agit de cette idée selon laquelle les théories et les interventions en développement de carrière s’appliquent de manière universelle aux différents individus, indépendamment de leur genre, de leur nationalité ou de leur classe sociale. Ce principe suppose aussi que tous les groupes sociaux ont la même conception de la carrière.

L’individualisme

Selon ce principe, l’individu est entièrement maître de ses propres choix et il façonne sa destinée. L’accent est mis sur l’individu (intérêts, valeurs, aptitudes), mais très peu sur son contexte de vie et son entourage. Par exemple, l’adolescent doit en venir à faire un choix de carrière de manière autonome, libéré de l’influence familiale.

L’aisance financière

On suppose que les individus ont les moyens financiers pour poursuivre leur développement de carrière, en oubliant que derrière chaque choix de carrière se cache un coût financier. Pour les individus en situation de précarité, l’impossibilité de réaliser un choix de carrière en concordance avec leurs intérêts, valeurs et aptitudes peut constituer une forme de violence symbolique.

La méritocratie

Ce principe repose sur la croyance que les emplois les plus prestigieux et les mieux rémunérés dépendent directement du mérite et de l’effort, sans tenir compte du fait que de nombreux facteurs non méritocratiques œuvrent comme des leviers et des freins au développement de carrière (ex. : discrimination, scolarité et revenus des parents, situation de handicap).

La centralité du travail

D’après ce principe, les individus développent leur identité et s’actualisent essentiellement par le travail. Pourtant, que ce soit par choix ou par contrainte, le travail constitue pour plusieurs un élément en périphérie de leur identité. Pensons aux individus qui redoutent le travail en raison d’expériences négatives fortes (ex. : racisme, sexisme, homophobie, classisme).

La carrière comme processus linéaire, progressif et rationnel

Ce principe se fonde sur les vestiges des théories de carrière dites développementales. La carrière est conçue comme un processus linéaire et progressif, ponctué d’étapes prévisibles qui doivent être résolues de manière rationnelle. Or, de nos jours, la plus grande fluidité du marché de l’emploi effrite cet idéal d’une carrière teintée par la linéarité et la progressivité. Au contraire, celle-ci est de moins en moins accessible au plus grand nombre. Les changements de carrière, tout comme les retours en formation, tendent à s’accentuer tout au long de la vie.

Bio de l’auteure

David Baril, M.Sc., c.o., est actuellement candidat au doctorat en éducation de l’Université de Sherbrooke. Il y enseigne depuis 2016 le cours Phénomènes sociaux et orientation. Ses intérêts de recherche portent sur les normes sociales, les rapports au travail et les adultes peu scolarisés. En 2013, il décroche le Prix Wilfrid-Éthier de l’Ordre des conseillers et conseillères d’orientation du Québec.

Pour une lecture approfondie de l’eurocentrisme

Flores, L. Y. (2014). Empowering life choices : Career counseling in the contexts of race and class. In N. C. Gysbers, M. J. Heppner et J. A. Johnston (dir.), Career counseling : Holism, diversity, and strengths (p. 51-77). Alexandria, VA : American Counseling Association.

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Appel aux conférenciers lancé pour le congrès national en développement de carrière Cannexus19

Le CERIC invite les personnes et les organismes désireux de faire une présentation au congrès national en développement de carrière Cannexus19 à soumettre une brève proposition de présentation en utilisant le formulaire de proposition qui suit, et les invite à faire connaître cette invitation à leurs collègues ou étudiants.

Le congrès bilingue se déroulera du 28 au 30 janvier 2019 au Centre Shaw à Ottawa. Il s’agit du plus grand événement au Canada en matière d’orientation professionnelle et de développement de carrière, et quelque 1000 participants de partout au Canada et dans le monde y sont attendus.

Présenter à Cannexus constitue une occasion unique d’échanger de l’information et d’explorer de nouvelles approches en orientation professionnelle et en développement de carrière. Cette expérience permettra aux conférenciers de s’établir en tant qu’experts et leaders dans leurs domaines, au congrès et par la suite.

Les thèmes suivants ont été retenus par le CERIC pour aider les conférenciers à élaborer le contenu de leurs présentations. Il ne s’agit que d’exemples; vos propres idées et suggestions sont les bienvenues.

Techniques d’accompagnement et d’orientation professionnelle efficaces
Nouvelles technologies et tendances, nouveaux outils
Recherche, théorie et méthodologie actuelles
Soin de soi pour les professionnels du développement de carrière
Programmes de formation ou d’employabilité (milieu communautaire, gouvernements, corporations)
Mentorat
Entrepreneuriat et emploi autonome
Développement de carrière chez les Autochtones
Clientèles marginalisées
Information scolaire et professionnelle (primaire, secondaire, postsecondaire)
Recrutement et mobilisation des employés
Planification et développement de la main-d’œuvre
Développement de carrière pour la main-d’œuvre vieillissante
Compétences en leadership et en gestion pour les directeurs de centres de carrière/d’emploi
Les propositions doivent être soumises au plus tard le 8 juin 2018. Au préalable, veuillez consulter les conditions et les lignes directrices pour les présentations.

Cannexus est présenté par le CERIC avec le soutien de The Counselling Foundation of Canada et d’un vaste réseau d’organisations collaboratives et de commanditaires.

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The Changing World of Work

What occupations and skills are most at risk with automation – and which will remain in demand

By Trudy Parsons 

 

A report released by the World Economic Forum – Future of Jobs Report – shares a popular estimate, claiming 65% of children who are just entering primary school will work in new job types that do not yet exist. Imagine how this world of work will evolve for these young people who have grown up in a world where smart technology has been an integral part of their lives. Now consider the impact and implications for workers who have a long history of being active in the labour market. What adjustments will they need to make to ensure ongoing and active employment? New skills, new knowledge, and adaptable behaviours will be the foundation on which workers will propel into the future of work. So, let’s consider what that might look like in 2025 and beyond.

Automation, the human worker’s assistant?

Automation can assist human workers, allowing them to focus on more strategic and creative tasks as well as tasks that never existed before – tasks that will be created in an automated future. According to The Talented Mr. Robot – Impact of Automation on Canada’s Workforce, a report by the Brookfield Institute, 42% of the Canadian labour force is at a high risk of being affected by automation over the next 10-20 years. Jobs that are most at risk include routine work (physical and cognitive) such as retail salespeople, administrative assistants, food counter attendants, cashiers, and transport truck drivers. We see this today. Your next order at McDonald’s will be through its automated kiosks, while a visit to Lowe’s may introduce you to OSHbot, a retail service robot that can guide you to the item you are looking for and even help staff with inventory scanning.

While routine, methodical tasks will be replaced through automation, it is important to note that automation has not yet mastered the human mind. Jobs that fall into the routine stream will go by the wayside, while those that require creativity, negotiation, persuasion and care for others will be less impacted. The Brookfield Institute report offers insight into Canadian occupations and the probability of being affected by automation.

 

The occupations at a high risk of being affected by automation with the most employees are:

  • Retail salespersons, 92% probability of automation and more than 656,000 employees,
  • Administrative assistants, 96% probability of automation and nearly 329,000 employees,
  • Food counter attendants and kitchen helpers, 91.5% probability of automation and nearly 313,000 employees,
  • Cashiers, 97% probability of automation and nearly 309,000 employees, and
  • Transport truck drivers, 79% probability of automation and nearly 262,000 employees.

 

Those offering lower risk of impact due to automation include:

  • Retail and wholesale trade managers, 20.5% probability of automation and more than 363,000 employees,
  • Registered nurses (psychiatric included), 0.9% probability of automation and more than 291,000 employees,
  • Elementary and kindergarten teachers, 0.4% probability of automation and more than 271,000 employees,
  • Early childhood educators and assistants, 0.7% probability of automation and nearly 188,000 employees, and
  • Secondary school teachers, 0.8% probability of automation and nearly 174,000 employees.

 

When we think about the differences in these occupations, we reflect on those at lower risk requiring cognitive skills, people management, and creativity. In looking to the future and thinking about the skills that will be foundational to remain competitive in the labour market, we need to consider the importance of adaptability and resiliency.

According to Fast Company, the top six skills areas for the future of work include:

  • Technology and computational thinking
  • Caregiving
  • Social intelligence & new media literacy
  • Lifelong learning
  • Adaptability & business acumen

 

The reality is our work and its demand for skills and knowledge has evolved throughout history, and this evolution will only continue. We can’t predict the future with certainty, nor can we know today all the job options that will be available for the graduating class of 2025. What we do know is that career pathways will continue along a spectrum that requires exploration, consideration, and a realization that change is inevitable and we will need to adapt, be resilient, and never lose our desire to learn.

 

AUTHOR BIO

Trudy Parsons is the Executive Vice President with MDB Insight, a national economic development consultancy that promotes the alignment of economic and workforce planning to create stronger pathways to employment. She brings over 20 years of experience working with local community to strengthen the connection between people and jobs.

 

REFERENCES

Brookfield Institute. (2016). The Talented Mr. Robot: The Impact of Automation on Canada’s Workforce. Toronto: Lamb, Creig. Retrieved from http://brookfieldinstitute.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/TalentedMrRobot_BIIE-1.pdf

Harvard University. (2017, May 25). Facebook Founder Mark Zuckerberg Commencement Address. | Harvard Commencement 2017. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BmYv8XGl-YU&feature=youtu.be.

Moran, Gwen. (2016, March 31). These Will Be The Top Jobs In 2025 (And The Skills You’ll Need To Get Them). Fast Company. Retrieved from https://www.fastcompany.com/3058422/these-will-be-the-top-jobs-in-2025-and-the-skills-youll-need-to-get-them

World Economic Forum. (2016). The Future of Jobs: Employment, Skills and Workforce Strategy for the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Retrieved from http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Future_of_Jobs.pdf

Facebook Founder Mark Zuckerberg Commencement Address | Harvard Commencement 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BmYv8XGl-YU&feature=youtu.be; Retrieved 11-23-17

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Principles in Action: Framing Career Development as a Lifelong Process

By Paula Wischoff Yerama

With a goal of bringing greater clarity and consistency to our national conversations about career development, CERIC developed a set of Guiding Principles of Career Development that have been enthusiastically embraced across Canada. These eight Guiding Principles are intended as a starting point to inform discussions with clients, employers, funders, policymakers and families.
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La nouvelle édition de la RCDC comprend de nouvelles recherches sur les étudiants ayant des troubles d’apprentissage, les aspirations professionnelles des adultes autochtones, les effets de l’IMT et plus encore

La nouvelle édition de la Revue canadienne de développement de carrière (RCDC) vient d’être publiée, marquant la 17ème année de la diffusion du travail de chercheurs en développement de carrière du Canada et du monde entier. Présentant une toute nouvelle couverture, ce numéro explore une gamme de sujets variés, dont la plupart explorent les expériences de carrière et d’emploi de populations spécifiques.

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Nova Scotia Trades Exhibition Hall: Innovation in Youth Engagement

Fighting the knowledge gap to increase young people’s awareness of the diversity in the construction industry

By Madison Tiller

 

What jobs do you think of when you hear the term “construction?”

Words like « carpenter, » « plumber, » or « electrician » may come to mind. And for many high school students, this is where their knowledge of the construction industry ends.

While electrical, carpentry and plumbing are great choices, they are far from the only options that exist in the industry. Occupations such as ironworker, boilermaker or crane operator are not usually on youths’ radar when it comes to potential careers. Many students, parents and educators are unaware that there are over 100 different jobs to explore in the construction sector.

Why is there this lack of awareness?

“While it is hard to know for sure, it can be partially attributed to the stigma that surrounds the construction industry,” explains Trent Soholt, Executive Director of the Nova Scotia Construction Sector Council (NSCSC), a non-profit organization that supports Nova Scotia’s Industrial-Commercial-Institutional (ICI) construction sector. “The industry battles a reputation of being ‘second tier’ in comparison to other sectors, often those that require a university education. Parents may feel familiar with “construction” through watching popular renovation shows, but these shows are not a true representation of the industry. This combination of factors contributes to the lack of discussion around jobs in the construction industry when it’s time for young people to begin thinking about careers.”

The NSCSC recognized this knowledge gap while travelling to career fairs across the province. “When students would come to our booth, they were surprised at how many opportunities there were in our sector,” says Soholt. NSCSC staff also recognized how difficult it is to engage students with only information-dense brochures and handouts. These events, along with the organization acquiring a large empty warehouse, led to the creation of the Trades Exhibition Hall – a one-of-a-kind career awareness facility located in Halifax.

The NSCSC Trades Exhibition Hall offers high school and junior high students, teachers, career counsellors and jobseekers the unique opportunity to explore careers in ICI construction via hands-on, interactive learning. During half or full-day sessions, visitors try their hand at various skilled trades and management occupations by taking part in activities guided by experienced industry professionals.

The Sector Council, with support from industry and government, has transformed its empty warehouse into a simulated construction site containing 14 interactive booths, each representing ICI trades and occupations. Booths include: boilermaker, bricklayer, carpenter, electrician, elevator constructor, finishing trades, insulator, ironworker, non-destructive tester, operating engineer, pipe trades, sheet metal worker and various management occupations represented in the “management trailer.” Each booth is operated by an industry professional who provides information about their occupation and walk visitors through hands-on demonstrations and activities. Instead of just reading a brochure or hearing a presentation about becoming a bricklayer, participants can speak-one-on-one with an apprentice, journeyperson or manager about what they do and even lay a brick or two. The Trades Exhibition Hall also contains state-of-the-art simulators, allowing visitors to immerse themselves in the virtual world of welding and painting.

“We wanted to create a space that feels like an actual job site,” says Soholt. Prior to entering the Hall visitors must undergo a safety orientation and are required to wear full Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) while in the Hall. “We have hard hats, safety glasses and slip-on steel toe protection on-hand for students and visitors who come through the Hall,” he adds.

Since opening early 2014, the NSCSC Trades Exhibition Hall has seen more than 4,500 visitors come through its doors. Visitors’ ages range from 14-50+, with grades 10 and 11 being the most common attendees. Over 60 schools from nine school boards all over Nova Scotia have made the journey to visit the Hall with bookings received up to 2019. The Nova Scotia Construction Sector Council host an annual two-day Aboriginal Youth Skilled Trades Fair in the Trades Exhibition Hall, along with visits from other special interest groups, such as the Immigrant Services Association of Nova Scotia (ISANS) and Women Unlimited. The Trades Exhibition Hall operations are funded by the Nova Scotia Apprenticeship Agency.

When asked why he thinks the Hall has been so successful, Soholt says it all comes down to the interactive elements. “People, especially young people, really respond well to hands-on learning. We still provide them with the same career information we did before, but now we incorporate it into activities that get the students involved. And it’s not only the students who respond well to the hands-on; it’s teachers, parents, guidance counsellors and career seekers of any age. When we initially opened, we thought we would have about one visit per month, and now we are booking two to three visits per week!”

For more information about the Nova Scotia Construction Sector Council, or the Nova Scotia Construction Sector Council’s Trades Exhibition Hall, visit nscsc.ca.

 

AUTHOR BIO

Madison Tiller is the Communications Specialist at the Nova Scotia Construction Sector Council where she co-ordinates tours of the NSCSC Trades Exhibition Hall.

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Skills for an Automated Future

Changing how we develop skills, measure them and apply them in the workforce

By Patrick Snider

 

Canada is heading towards a period of disruption due to technology. We need to prepare our workforce with the skills necessary to make this transition.

This year, the Canadian Chamber of Commerce has been conducting a project with partners in Canadian higher education institutes, businesses and other stakeholder groups to examine the needs of the future workforce. We have conducted a series of roundtables across the country to solicit their perspectives on this issue, bringing together experts and business leaders, as well as synthesizing together reports from other researchers on this topic.

According to many of the leading economic analysts – including the OECD, Brookfield Institute, McKinsey Global Institute (MGI), C.D. Howe, and Employment and Social Development Canada – the coming decade will see significant disruption in the way Canadians work. Estimates vary, but out of the current workforce between seven million and 11 million existing jobs are expected to see a significant share of their activities eliminated or radically transformed through automation and artificial intelligence. More contentious is the estimate of jobs that will be eliminated entirely, which range from a negligible number, to millions of jobs. What is certain is that there will be significant changes to the way that Canadians work in the coming years.

While this disruption presents challenges, the upside to automation can’t be ignored. It is estimated by MGI that the increase in productivity from automation could add up to 1.5% to GDP growth. Growth means new jobs – according to figures from our partners, over 30% of all jobs created in the 1990s during that technology boom did not exist at all previously. Looking forward, we may not know what kinds of jobs will be created in response to technologies that are only just emerging, but we can say with high confidence they will.

 

So what does this mean for skills in the Canadian workforce?

Canada’s existing skill training programs are designed around assumptions of low turnover, long-term careers, and a direct progression from primary and secondary education, to post-secondary job training, to employment. This worked for the old, industrial model of employment based on specific jobs with a long tenure and little change, but it is at risk of no longer functioning as the pace of technological chance increases, jobs are altered or eliminated, and more business sectors are disrupted.

Our partners identified a number of challenges to finding the skills needed to make the transition towards the new, more automated workforce of the future. The most pressing issue is the need to measure the workforce, to understand the impact of changing technology in a more detailed way.

This needs to go beyond simply listing the jobs that are available, and the majors people graduated in, and to look at the full supply of skills available and in demand. Looking forward, we see more job mobility and examples of students crossing traditional boundaries in education and employment. Employers reported looking for mixed skill sets, combining social skills and technology skills, or mathematical and business expertise. Repeatedly in our conversations, the topic of improved soft skills came up just as often as the issues with finding graduates with the specific technical expertise that was required.

 

Better measure supply and demand to optimize pathways to employment

We see the diversity in outcomes reflected in data around STEM employment. In US census data from 2014, nearly one quarter of workers in “STEM jobs” graduated from a non-STEM program, and only one third of STEM graduates wound up in a STEM job, with the other two-thirds working in other fields. Businesses, educators and students need better data when it comes to the different pathways their education can take them, especially the directions that are not immediately obvious.

This is why our partners ask for better measures of the specific skills that students acquire, and the skills that jobs use. Mapping the labour market in those terms allows a greater ability for all participants to find opportunities, measure the supply and demand of skills in the economy, and to plan out their future with greater precision.

This new view of skills and employment relates directly to the next priority our panellists outlined. Current educational cycles are long, measured in years, based around an industrial era education that is meant to last a lifetime in a single role. If employers are going to participate in the lifelong training of employees, then that requires more short-duration programs without long absences from the workforce. This means supporting educational institutions in developing programs, such as micro-credentials, professional certificates, and targeted technical training, which fit with the previous model of filling in more specific skill gaps.

 

Maintaining skills by creating more opportunities for ongoing learning

Core skills need to be maintained as well. We see in existing data, the longer workers are out of education, and the less support they receive, the more their core literacy and numeracy degrades over time. Creating more opportunities to maintain those skills is another priority.

This does not eliminate the need for existing educational programs – there is still a strong value seen in the skills that result from existing college, undergraduate and postgraduate programs. But these are going to have to increasingly coexist with other pathways to acquiring the same skills, mixing self-directed education, badges, micro-credentials and other opportunities for learning.

These changes will require a new attitude by many in the worlds of education and business. Lifelong learning is not yet a part of the culture in either our workplaces or schools, but it can be. This needs to start early – the K-12 system needs to embrace the idea that students need to view their education as an ongoing personal investment. Students require entrepreneurship education, not just in the narrow sense of starting a business but in the broader sense of continually investing in skills, looking for opportunities and seeing ways they can meet demand. These are important considerations for all future citizens, as self-employment and new modes of working increasingly become the norm.

These new modes of studying and working would require changes to financing training as well. Already governments at the federal and provincial levels have taken steps to improve access – this is crucial, since many lower income Canadians have difficulty reaching higher education. But new models need to be explored in addition to existing programs, such as supporting business investment in training. No one else in the economy has a better understanding of the skills in demand. The issue is recognizing the work that businesses do to provide training, and mitigating risks such as employee departure and poaching. By providing a flexible set of incentives, that recognize both formal training programs and the informal training that many smaller businesses engage in, skill development can be encouraged as well as better measured and understood. By lowering risks, businesses can invest with greater confidence.

Building the skill development system needed for Canada’s future workforce is not a simple matter, and will require a long-term program of changing how we develop skills, measure them, and apply them in the workforce. But it is a challenge that will define our economy for the coming decades, and whether technology becomes an asset or not.

 

AUTHOR BIO

Patrick Snider is the Director of Policy for Skills and Immigration at the Canadian Chamber of Commerce. He completed the Bachelor of the Humanities program at Carleton University in Ottawa, and went on to a Master’s in Political Science at that same institution, with a focus on political theory. His work has included a range of policy studies on topics as diverse as healthcare, cooperative businesses, education and immigration. In those positions, he used his background to identify issues and offer solutions to political questions.

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